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1980 | 4 | 292-298

Article title

Rezerwaty archeologiczne w Polsce - problem definicji i liczby



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Archaeological reserves are recognized as one of the best forms of the protection o f uncovered archaeological objects and their presentation to the society. They boast a big popularity and they make it possible for those interested to get into contact with an authentic historic monument set in natural surroundings in which it has been discovered. This authenticity affects imagination and allows fcr an easier assimilation of history inherent in the works already uncovered and shown in museums. The first Polish reserve was opened in Biskupin in 1938 and it covered relics of a defensive settlement illustrating Lusatian culture from before 2,500 years. In the post- war period a number o f reserves representing different epochs were opened. There are many methods to organize a reserve and the way differs depending on the kind o f the reserve (i.e. whether this is a cemetery, a prehistoric industrial unit, an old settlement or a grave monud). The archaeological conservation service in Poland often marks such objects with tables or stones, which is a good form o f their protection and constitutes a link in the reserve organization. Unfortu lately, until today there is no complete list o f archaeological reserves in Poland. This, inter alia, is due to difficulties involved in the specification of the term and stating what is and what is not the reserve. A definition of the reserve was given in 1961 by K. Piwocki but it has been misused in literature on the subject. In this situation the author undertaken the task to put forward a definition that would allow to point out in an explicit way the objects that can be considered as reserves. Apart from well-known criterions such as the fact that the object must be uncovered by archaeological methods and be in situ, of importance is also its adaptation for public. Different methods may be used here but neither archaeological character of the object nor its arrangement decide whether or not this is a reserve. A decisive role is played by the result in the form of a post which is easily accesible and where one can get full information on the subject. In this context a reserve may be both a group of grave mounds to which leads a well-marked road and about which one can acquire full information on the spot (written on a special plate or given by a guide). It may also be remainings o f the excavated building placed in a pavilion or a museum (like on the Wawel Castle) and open for visitors, with full information furnished. With such an assumption in mind, the author presents a list of 31 reserves, open and operating in Poland in 1980. The list does not contain a number of places which might become a reserve (such as an old settlement at Kalisz — Zawodzie, at Stare Bródno in Warsaw or a Romanesque building at Przemyśl, grave mounds in Suwalska Szwajcaria) but which have not been brought into life and thus do not meet the conditions set in the definition.







Physical description




  • mgr, Ośrodek Dokumentacji Zabytków w Warszawie


  • K. P i w o c k i , Zabytek, rezerwaty, park kultury — muzeum w plenerze, ,,Ochrona Zabytkow” , XIV, nr 3—4, 1961, s. 3—4.
  • J. A u g u s t y n i a k , Ekspozycja zabytkow archeologicznych in situ, „Rocznik Muzeow i Ochrony Zabytkow Ziem Polski Środkowej”, t. 1, 1973, s. 88—107;
  • W. B ł a s z c z y k , Idea archeologicznej ekspozycji ,,tradycyjnej” i ,,in situ” ii’ środowisku przemysłowym na przykładzie Muzeum w Częstochowie, „Prace i Materiały Muzeum Archeologicznego i Etnograficznego w Łodzi”, Seria Archeologiczna, nr 16, 1969, s. 176— 180;
  • K. D ą b r o w s k i , Miejsce rezerwatu archeologicznego tv kształtowaniu środowiska naturalnego, „Wiadomości Archeologiczne”, t. 42, 1977, s. 3—8;
  • Z. R a j e w s k i , O rezerwatach archeologicznych w Polsce, „Wiadomości Archeologiczne”, t. 25, 1958, s. 240—247;
  • Z. R a j e w s k i , Rezerwaty archeologiczno-historyczne, „Informator Muzeum w Grudziądzu” , t. 5, 1964, s. 27—34;
  • Z. R a j e w s k i , Rezerwaty archeologiczne i muzea na wolnym powietrzu, „Archeologia Polski”, t. 13, 1968, s. 429—442.
  • „Biuletyn Informacyjny Zarządu Muzeow i Ochrony Zabytkow”, 1977, s. 6—16 (wykaz muzeow podległych Ministerstwu Kultury i Sztuki).
  • B. G ł o w a c k a , Rezerwaty archeologiczne w Polsce, 1979, praca magisterska na Uniwersytecie Łódzkim (nic publikowana), mapka sygnowana (wyk. 1978).
  • Por. W. H e n s e l. Archeologia i prahistoria, Warszawa — Wrocław—Krakow—Gdańsk 1971

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Publication order reference


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