Kompetence k učení a možnosti jejího rozvíjení a hodnocení: vymezení pojmu a přehled současných přístupů
Learning competencies and possibilities for their development and evaluation: Defining the concept and a review of current approaches
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This theoretical study aims to provide an overview of knowledge concerning learning competencies and the possibilities for their development during instruction. The study is divided into two parts. The first one is concerned with defining the concept of learning competencies with regards to the concept of (key) competencies. Following selected authors, learning competencies are structured into (sub)dimensions, and so the approach to learning competencies as a multidimensional construct is highlighted. Further on, we point out how particular dimensions and (sub)dimensions are classified by selected authors, which brings further questions regarding this construct. Three approaches to defining learning competencies are identified – definitions according to: (1) qualities – characteristics, (2) components – elements, and (3) combination of qualities and components (combined approach). In the second part of the study, four Czech approaches to developing learning competencies in the instruction are introduced. The first two (of The Research Institute of Education) see learning competencies through the „wide“ perspective (macroscale). The other two (of Chvál and Kasíková and The institute for Research in School Education) see learning competencies more „in focus“ (microscale) and also allow for its evaluation.
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