The relationship between the qualities of temperament and the results of learning were studied in the course of an experiment. The qualities of temperament were determined by means of the Strelau Temperament Questionnaire. The results of learning were examined on the basis of the following three tasks: writing words using conventional signs, solving logical problems and memorizing texts. School grades were also taken into consideration. The results of the research show that there is a significant correlation between the temperament qualities, solving problems in the correct way and school grades. The students characterized by lower reactivity and higher mobility achieved significantly higher results in all three tasks. Their grades were also better. The students characterized by high reactivity, contrary to those showing low reactivity, made significantly more mistakes in the three tasks. The students who were more mobile, compared with the slower ones, made significantly more mistakes while writing words using conventional signs and presenting memorized texts.