The aim of the paper is to present selected conditions of economic activity of rural populations with un¬certain incomes and identify some factors behind the relatively disadvantageous situation of the studied group on the labour market. The paper discusses the determinants of being employed on a non-standard basis (for a specified period, under a substitution contract, etc.), and the associated income insecurity. The author lists the factors which prompt people to search for a new job, as well as the reasons which prevent them from seeking new em¬ployment. The paper also investigates the active measures which the respondents undertook to improve their competitiveness in comparison to other market participants. Another issue raised by the author is the reasons for resignation from training and active job search, as well as the consequences of passive attitudes. An analysis of the reasons that undermine the willingness of individuals to establish their own business ventures was al¬so conducted. The empirical material contained in the paper is part of research carried out within the framework of research project number UMO-2011/01/B/HS5/01034 ("The standard of living of the rural populations of uncertain incomes in Poland"), funded by the National Science Centre.