Zabytki archeologiczne w środowisku naturalnym
ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
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One of the major tasks of archaeological conservation is the protection o f archaeological sites as elements of cultural and spatial complexes. In view o f an intensified rate o f socio-economic growth and a process o f landscape deformation related to it, it is necessary to work out an adequate way to secure sites by means o f rescue actions other than excavation methods. Because o f the fact that the function o f a ground archaeological monument as an element o f cultural landscape and as a spatial element has not as yet been always properly comprehended, this problem needs interdisciplinary measures to be taken in programming the protection o f this category o f monuments. The problem should also be included in regional plans o f spatial development o f towns, settlements, villages as well as in investment plans of economically developed historic areas. It is not enough today to care only for the inviolability o f monumental substance; protection o f archaeological sites should consist in proper exposing, i.e. preserving their old specific nature and atmosphere. Until now, spatial development of historic towns has had a wrong approach to the relics o f strongholds, incorrectly excluding them from a generally applied terminology in the field o f historic monuments. Forestry department has issued a number of normative acts on the principles o f protecting monuments of material culture on wooded lands. The problem to be still solved is a proper tourist development o f wooded lands with monuments o f material culture on them. It is planned to create soon an archaeological and natural reserve on the territory o f the Białowieża Forest, that would secure and make open for visiting grave mounds dating back to the early Middle Ages, old charcoal piles and field patches o f a former village. As regards problems involved in the protection o f objects situated in open landscape, it is necessary to be able to recognize, still at the stage o f designing, planned economic investments and to assess the projects involving areas o f cultural and landscape values. An early orientation o f archaeological conservation services allows them to interfere into projects or to take up measures protecting the site prior to investment works. This may be exemplified by the object at Haćki, Bielsk Podlaski commune, where the intervention o f conservation authorities resulted in abandoning a melioration project that constituted a threat to natural environment. It is also necessary for conservators to interfere into a plan o f making an artifical lake at Drohiczyn, as it might destroy and deform a unique spatial complex. Problems o f proper protection o f spatial archaeological monuments were raised at a symposium held at Białystok in October 1977, entitled: „Problems o f developing archaeological posts in town agglomerations and wood complexes”.
- M. P a ź d z i o r , Ochrona środowiska ochroną zabytkow?, „Ochrona Zabytkow”, nr 3—4, 1977, s. 112—116.
- J. B o g d a n o w s k i , Krajobraz a zagospodarowanie turystyczne, [w:] Problemy realizacji wypoczynku po pracy i nauce, Warszawa 1971, s. 163— 168.
- K. W ol f r a m , Rola zabytkow kultury materialnej jako obiektow turystycznego zagospodarowania w środowisku kraju, referat wygłoszony na sympozjum w Białymstoku 4.X.1977 r., materiały z sympozjum w przygotowaniu do druku.
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