In the 21st century Asia is commonly believed to be a centre stage player in global policies. Although China and the United States are likely to dominate in the Asian Big Game for the next decade, other players, especially India, Japan, Indonesia, Vietnam or South Korea, may exert a serious impact on the process of redefining the continental Realpolitik. The most crucial challenge for China and India is to meet their own energy security needs in the politically volatile environment, where the diversification options are quite limited. Beijing’s plans to control the strategic transportation corridors on the Indian Ocean will be opposed by New Delhi, whose energy security depends to a large extent on the Middle East. Another challenge that many Asian big players may face in the next decade is constructing a regional security mechanism that could prevent any serious military conflicts, especially in a situation when the American role in global affairs is likely to become more restrained.