The paper deals with the phenomenon of new religious movements, sects and cults from the perspective of the Catholic Church and the theology of Catholic tradition. The paper presents published documents from various Roman Catholic secretariats and councils from 1986 up until 2012. It also pays attention to selected figures of Catholic theological tradition interested in the world of new religious movements. The document of the International theological commission entitled Theology Today: Perspectives, Principles and Criteria (2011) was an impulse for reflection on sects and new religious movements. The emergence of new religions in the 20th century is presented as an opportunity for Christian Catholic tradition to recognise them as “signs of the times” (c.f. Gaudium et spes 4; Theology today II. 6.).