The text aims to bring attention of the Czech readers to Petrie's contributions to the eugenics movement in Great Britain. It describes his close association with Francis Galton and his resulting pronounced views on eugenics and shows how Petrie's racist opinions and involvement in eugenics influenced his work as an archaeologist and historian. An attempt is made to understand Petrie's views in the context of his times instead of condemning him for his appalling conclusions motivated by his racism and eugenics beliefs. The text offers a perspective which enables the readers to consider Petrie's thoughts in relation to the eugenic movement which was not only favoured by many of his contemporaries, but also had many supporters long after Petrie's death. Any consideration of the influence of past ideologies and context on Petrie's thinking and research also brings forward an unanswerable question of how much each one of us is influenced by the ideologies and the context(s) prevalent in present times and culture.