PL EN


2016 | 7(1)/2016 | 264-276
Article title

Cooperation and obstacles between EU & GCC

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Współpraca między EU I GCC oraz jej bariery
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The monarchies of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have been ever more clearly emerging as the hub of the whole Middle East region. This has been obvious in economic terms, as during the current boom their relative weight – always large – has further grown and they are the leaders in a new phase of regional economic liberalization and cross-border investment. Their ascendancy has also unfolded, more subtly, on the political level, as Gulf monarchies are starting to throw around their diplomatic weight to pursue their vested interest in political calm and economic cooperation in the wider Middle East. While emerging as the most sophisticated and resourceful player in the region, the Gulf has been gradually reorienting itself geo - economically: away from the US and towards Asia. The role of Europe in this shift is yet unclear. The European Union runs the danger of missing out in a crucial period of in which the decks in the Middle East are reshuffled, old players lose importance and new players emerge. This is although the EU has a number of comparative advantages vis-à-vis other regions that could be played out much more systematically to position itself towards the GCC. So I refer in this paper to the points of cooperation and obstacles between the EU and GCC and also the important recommendations.
PL
Monarchie Rady Współpracy Zatoki Perskiej (GCC) coraz wyraźniej jawią się jako centrum całego regionu Bliskiego Wschodu. Oczywistym jest to w sensie ekonomicznym, jako że podczas obecnego boomu ich względna wartość - zawsze duża - jeszcze bardziej wzrosła. Są one teraz liderami w nowej fazie liberalizacji regionalnej gospodarki i inwestycji transgranicznych. Ich przewaga również rozwinęła się w bardziej subtelny sposób, na poziomie politycznym. Monarchie Zatoki zaczynają podkreślać swoją wartość dyplomatyczną, aby prowadzić swoje interesy w spokoju politycznym i współpracy gospodarczej na szeroko pojetym Bliskim Wschodzie. Choć pojawiają się jako najbardziejwyrafinowany i pomysłowy gracz w regionie, Zatoka stopniowo przestawia się geo -ekonomicznie: od USA i w stonę Azji. Rola Europy w tej zmianie jest jeszcze niejasna. Unia Europejska jest w niebezpieczeństwie przegapienia kluczowego okresu, w którym pokłady na Bliskim Wschodzie są przetasowane, starzy gracze tracą znaczenie i pojawiają się nowi. Jednakże UE ma przewagę w porównaniu z innymi regionami. Przewaga ta może zostać rozegrana o wiele bardziej systematycznie, aby ustawić się w kierunku GCC. W artykule przedstawione są aspekty współpracy oraz przeszkody między UE a GCC, a także ważne zalecenia.
Contributors
  • Faculty of Political Sciences and International Relations Matej Bel University
References
  • Alston Philip, The EU and Human Rights , Oxford University Press, New York, 1999.
  • Delegation of the European Union to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, Political & economic relations. Available at http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/gulf_countries/eu_gulf_countries/political_relations/index_en.htm, accessed on April, 2015.
  • Eissa, Noura Abdel Maksoud, The Analysis of Eu-Gcc Potential Free Trade Area Agreement through Eu-Gcc Actual Steps (1995-2012), ACADEMIC JOURNAL ARTI-CLE ,World Review of Political Economy , Vol. 5, No. 3 , Fall 2014.
  • European Commission Communication. Improving Relations between the European Union and the Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), COM (95), 541 final, November 22, 1995.
  • Eurochambres. Press Release: EU Needs to Increase its Investment Efforts into the Gulf Region, 2012. Available at http://www.eurochambres.eu/objects/1/Files/EU_needs_to_increase_investment_into_Gulf%20Region.pdf, accessed on April, 2015.
  • Estimo, R. EU-GCC Investment Seminars to be Held in Riyadh, Abu Dhabi.
  • Arab News, January 8, 2013. Available at http://www.arabnews.com/eu-gcc-investment-seminars-be-held-riyadh-abu-dhabi, accessed on April, 2015
  • Heiner Hänggi, Theorizing Regional Integration and InterRegional Relations, ECPR Joint Sessions, Helsinki, Finland, 7-12 May 2007. Available at http://ecpr.eu/ Filestore/PaperProposal/8aa59e95-9159-4527-853d-291604725d99.pdf,accessed on April, 2015
  • Hill, G. and G. Nonneman. Yemen, Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States: ElitePolitics, Street Protests and Regional Diplomacy, Chatham House Briefing Paper, May 2011.
  • Joint Action Programme for Implementation of the GCC-EU, 2013. . Available at http://eeas.europa.eu/gulf_cooperation/docs/joint_action_programme_en.pdf, accessed on April, 2015.
  • Kazim H., EU-GCC Clean Energy Network Moves Forward. Arab News, December 3, 2012. Available at http://www.arabnews.com/eu-gcc-clean-energy-network-moves-forward, accessed on April, 2015.
  • Kristian Coates Ulrichsen, Repositioning Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Cooperation Council States in the Changing Global Order, “Journal of Arabian Studies” 1(2011).
  • Khatib, L. Qatar’s Foreign Policy: the Limits of Pragmatism. „International Affairs“ 89, no. 2 (2013).
  • Koch Christian, Constructing a viable EU-GCC partnership, Jan 2014 . Available at http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/55282/1/Constructing-a-viable-U-GCC-relationship.pdf, accessed on April, 2015.
  • Kostadinova, V. Saudi-EU Relations – Recent Impediments, Current Trends, and Future Options. “European Foreign Affairs Review 18”, no. 2 (2013): 199-216
  • Kostadinova Valentina, What is the Status of the EU-GCC Relationship? GRC Gulf Papers,Gulf Research Center, 2013.
  • Luciani, G. and T. Schumacher. Relations between the European Union and the GulfCooperation Council – Record and Promises for the Future. Dubai: GRC, 2004.
  • Schimmelfenning, F. Europanization beyond Europe. Living Reviews in European Governance 4 (2009): 1-28. Available at http://europeangovernance.livingreviews.org/Articles/lreg-2009-3/download/ lreg-2009-3Color.pdf, accessed on April, 2015.
  • The EU and the GCC in Global Governance: Limitations and Future Potential Koops Joachim, Shahin Jamal, Smythe Chloe, Tercovich Giulia and Vandebriel Ziggy 2013. Available at http://eu-gcc.kcorp.net/common/publicationfile/51.pdf, accessed on April, 2015.
  • Working Group for European Strategy towards the Gulf, The EU and the GCC – A New Partnership. Bertelsmann Foundation, Vol. 2, (2002).
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-07048491-63f0-4c08-bb0d-6ba780afa6eb
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.