„Učitelky“: jejich dlouhá cesta k rovnoprávnosti a uznání se zaměřením na feminizaci a její důsledky
Female teachers: Their long road to equality and acceptance with a focus on feminization and its consequences
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Starting from the current situation of feminization in Austrian schools the long road to equality and acceptance of female teachers is traced on the basis of historical pedagogical journals for the period from 1870 to the end of the First World War. The roots of feminization – especially in the area of primary schools – go down into the dark depths of the 19th century. Despite resistance from male colleagues and difficult working conditions, being a “female teacher” was the possibility to receive a highly appreciated education after compulsory schooling as girls/women were allowed to take the “Maturity Exam” (“Matura” = entitlement to study at a university) not before 1896. In a short time, therefore, teacher training institutions for women “produced” a surplus of female teachers, who often had to earn their poor living as private teachers – “for peanuts”. The high degree of feminization today – and as a result – the lack of male teachers in Austria’s primary schools rather often deprive boys the chance to focus on male role models; male children find no same-sex models they could identify with; immigrant boys – especially from other cultures – appear to be particularly affected. Gender-based explanations and lines of argumentation show a variegated pattern why the teaching profession is characterized by feminization; just a few men choose the option to study at a School of Education in order to become a primary school teacher. Quite a lot of what has been published in recent studies (appointment of schoolheads, occupational psychological aspects…) can already be found in papers around the turn of the 20th century.
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