The results of international projects and programs, national public documents, scientific papers, which represent the essence of the concept of «social competence» were summarized in the article. The analysis made it possible to conclude that the concept of «social competence» is multidimensional and has many interpretations that reveal its essence according to the aspect chosen by the scholar. Scientists distinguish its meaning in the broad and narrow sense. It was established that the studied competence is treated as integrative characteristics of the student’s personality, which is a system-building one in its structure and is represented by the key elements of competence. Taking into consideration the generalization, our own definition of the term «social competence of the primary school student» was represented as the education component in the structure of its core competencies, that reflects variable combinations of values, knowledge, skills, abilities and personal qualities to ensure the child’s activity in a subject-subject interaction with the socio-cultural reality and, as a result, formation of interior social experience of the personality. The analysis of the researched competence structure shows that a lot of scientists agree with the opinion that key aspects of components definition are the following ones: motivational, cognitive, behavioral and reflective. The analysis of foreign and domestic research made it possible to make generalizations about the structure of social competence of the primary school children and features of its manifestation. Based on scientific and methodological works of the researchers the signs of formation of motivational, cognitive, active and reflective components of social competence of the modern primary school children were generalized . On the basis of reasonable structure of the generalization of the level apparatus of similar studies it was determined that in order to make its objective assessment it is necessary to use four-level estimation of its formation degree: low (reproductive), average (situational), sufficient (productive), high (active). It is proved that the represented combination of values, knowledge, skills and abilities to ensure the child’s activity in a subject-subject interaction of socio-cultural reality, is variable and depends on age, individual characteristics of students and socialization environment, that’s why it may be supplemented or changed.