And þan it wole be a good oynement restoratif… Pre- and Postnominal Adjectives in Middle English Medical Recipes*
Languages of publication
The present paper concentrates on the use of adjective modifiers in Middle English medical recipes. Although the study of the position of attributive adjectives in Middle English nominal phrases has attracted attention of many scholars (e.g. Norri 1989; Raumolin- Brunberg 1994; Fischer 2004; 2006; Moskowich 2009), there are no studies that would address the use of pre- and postnominal adjectives in the material representing only one genre (here, medical recipes). This paper will investigate several factors that might have determined the position of attributive adjectives in nominal phrases. Hence, the following questions will be considered: (i) was there a direct link between the origin of the adjective and its position in the noun phrase?, (ii) did the use of attributive adjectives only aim to identify the specific referents of the noun phrases or (iii) were there other reasons for their uses (the intended audience, technicality of source texts)?
- Alonso-Almeida, Francisco. 1998. “As it ys seyde to fore. Some Linguistic Evidence in the Process of Compiling Middle English Recipes.” Selim. Journal of the Spanish Society for Mediaeval English Language and Literature 8: 171–191.
- Alonso-Almeida, Francisco. 1999. “Gyf hyr this medycyn. Analysing the Middle English Medical Recipe Discourse.” Revista de lenguas para fines específicos 5–6: 49–81.
- Alonso-Almeida, Francisco. 2008. “The Middle English Medical Charm: Register, Genre and Text Type Variables.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 109.1: 9–38.
- Alonso-Almeida, Francisco. 2013. “Genre Conventions in English Recipes (1600–1800).” Reading and Writing Recipe Books 1550–1800. Ed. Michelle DiMeo, and Sara Pennell. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 68–92.
- Barrera, Ivalla Ortega. 2009. “The Advice Genre (1400–1599). Genre and Text Type Conventions.” Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 45.2: 39–58.
- Bator, Magdalena, and Marta Sylwanowicz. (forthc.). “The Typology of Medieval Recipes – Culinary vs. Medical.” Essays and Studies in Middle English. Ed. Jacek Fisiak et al. Frankfurt a/M.: Peter Lang Verlag.
- Biber, Douglas. 1988. Variation across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Biber, Douglas et al. 2007. Discourse on the Move: Using Corpus Analysis to Describe Discourse Structure. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.
- Biber, Douglas et al. 2008. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English. China: Longman.
- Carroll, Ruth. 1999. “The Middle English Recipe as a Text Type.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 100: 27–42.
- Carroll, Ruth. 2004. “Middle English Recipes: Vernacularisation of a Text-Type.” Medical and Scientific Writing in Late Medieval English. Ed. Irma Taavitsainen, and Päivi Pahta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 174–196.
- Cetnarowska, Bożena. 2014. “On Pre-nominal Classifying Adjectives in Polish.” Advances in the Syntax of DPs: Structure, Agreement, and Case. Ed. Anna Bondaruk, Gréte Dalmi, and Alexander Grosu. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 221–246.
- Dixon, Robert M. W. 2004. “Adjective Classes in Typological Perspective.” Adjective Classes. A Cross-Linguistic Typology. Ed. Robert M. W. Dixon, and Alexandra Y. Aikhenwald. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1–49
- Fischer, Olga. 2000. “The Position of the Adjective in Old English.” Generative Theory and Corpus Studies: A Dialogue from 10 ICEHL. Ed. Ricardo Otero-Bermúdez, David Denison, Richard M. Hogg, and C. B. McCully. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. 153–181.
- Fischer, Olga. 2001. “The Position of the Adjective in (Old) English from an Iconic Perspective.” The Motivated Sign: Iconicity in Language and Literature 2. Ed. Olga Fischer, and Max Nänny. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 249–276.
- Fischer, Olga. 2004. “Developments in the Category Adjective from Old to Middle English.” Studies in Medieval Language and Literature 19: 1–36.
- Fischer, Olga. 2006. “On the Position of Adjectives in Middle English.” English Language and Linguistics 10.2: 253–288.
- Fleischhacker, Robert von. 1894. Lanfrank’s “Sciencie of Cirurgie.” (EETS, OS 102). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.
- Greenbaum, Sidney. 1996. Oxford English Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Hallaert, M. R. 1982. The “Sekenesse of wymmen.” A Middle English Treatise on Diseases in Women. (Scripta: Mediaeval and Renaissance Texts and Studies 8). Brussels: Omirel.
- Huddleston, Rodney, and Geoffry K. Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Hunt, Tony. 1990. Popular Medicine in Thirteenth-century England: Introduction and Texts. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.
- Jones, Claire. 1998. “Formula and Formulation: “Efficacy Phrases” in Medieval English Medical Manuscripts.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 99: 199–209.
- Laenzlinger, Christopher. 2000. “French Adjective Ordering: Perspectives on DP-Internal Movement Types.” Generative Grammar in Geneva 1: 55–104.
- Martin, James. 1984. “Language, Genre and Register.” Children Writing: Reader. Ed. Frances Christie. Geelong: Vic. 21–29.
- Mäkinen, Matti. 2004. “Herbal Recipes and Recipes in Herbals – Intertextuality in Early English Medical Writing.” Medical and Scientific Writing in Late Medieval English. Ed. Irma Taavitsainen, and Päivi Pahta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 144–173.
- Mäkinen, Matti. 2006. “Between Herbals et Alia: Intertextuality in Medieval English Herbals.” PhD diss, University of Helsinki, Faculty of Arts, Department of English and The Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English.
- Millward, Celia M. 1996. A Biography of the English Language. Boston: Wadsworth Publishing.
- Moskowich, Isabel. 2002. “The Adjective in English. The ‘French type’ and its Place in the History of the Language.” Folia Linguistica Historica 23.1–2: 59–71.
- Moskowich, Isabel. 2009. “Of Medicineȝ Sedatyueȝ. Some Notes on Adjective Position and Oral Register in Middle English Medical Texts.” Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 45.1: 57–68.
- Moskowich, Isabel, and Begoña Crespo Garcia. 2002. “Adjectival Forms in Late Middle English. Syntactic and Semantic Implications.” Studia Neophilologica 74: 161–170.
- Norri, Juhani. 1989. “Premodification and Postmodification as a Means of Term-Formation in Middle English Medical Prose.” Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 90: 147–162.
- Pahta, Päivi. 2004. “Code-Switching in Medieval Medical Writing.” Medical and Scientific Writing in Late Medieval English. Ed. Irma Taavitsainen, and Päivi Pahta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 73–99.
- Power, d’Arcy. 1910. John Arderne: Treatises of Fistula in Ano, Haemorrhoids and Clysters. (EETS OS 109). London: Oxford University Press.
- Quirk, Randolph et al. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman.
- Raumolin-Brunberg Helena. 1994. “The Position of Adjectival Modifiers in Late Middle English Noun Phrases.” Creating and Using English Language Corpora. Ed. Udo Fries, Gunnel Tottie, and Peter Schneider. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. 159–168.
- Rijkhoff, Jan. 2008 “Synchronic and Diachronic Evidence for Parallels between Noun Phrases and Sentences.” Interdependence of Diachronic and Synchronic Analyses. Ed. Folke Josephson and Ingmar Sōhrman. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 13–42.
- Rowland, Beryl. 1981. Medieval Woman’s Guide to Health. The First English Gynaecological Handbook. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press.
- Sproat, Richard, and Chilin Shih. 1988. “Prenominal Adjective Ordering in English and Mandarin.” NELS 18: 465–489.
- Sproat, Richard, and Chilin Shih. 1991. “The Cross-linguistic Distribution of Adjective Ordering Restrictions.” Interdisciplinary Approaches to Language. Essays in Honor of S. Y. Kuroda. Ed. Carol Georgopolous, and Roberta Ishihara. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 565–593.
- Stannard, Jerry. 1982. “Rezeptliteratur as Fachliteratur.” Studies on Medieval Fachliteratur. Ed. William Eamon. Brussels: Omirel. 59–73.
- Swales, John M. 1990. Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Sylwanowicz, Marta. 2009. “It is to be heled with medicines…: Names of Medicines in Late Middle English Medical Texts.” Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny 56.3:349–362.
- Sylwanowicz, Marta. 2014. “Here begynnyth and tellyth howe a man schal make hys salves, oynementes and vnguentys. Towards Standard Medical Terminology in Middle English.” Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny 61.3: 559–567.
- Sylwanowicz, Marta. 2015. “Ways of Introducing Specialised Terminology in Middle English Medical Recipes.” Kwartalnik Neofilologiczny 62.4: 585–594. Taavitsainen, Irma. 2001a. “Middle English Recipes. Genre Characteristics, Text Type Features and Underlying Traditions of Writing.” Journal of Historical Pragmatics 2.1: 85–113.
- Taavitsainen, Irma. 2001b “Changing Conventions of Writing: The Dynamics of Genres, Text Types, and Text Traditions.” European Journal of English Studies 5.2: 139–150.
- Taavitsainen, Irma. 2012. “Discourse Forms and Vernacularisation Processes in Genres of Medical Writing.” Translation – Interpretation: COLLeGIUM, University of Helsinki. Ed. A. Ajmelaeus, and Päivi Pahta. Helsinki: Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies. 91–112.
- Taavitsainen, Irma, Paivi Pahta, and Matti Mäkinen, eds. 2005. Middle English Medical Texts (MEMT). (CD-ROM with MEMT Presenter software by Raymond Hickey). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
- Wear, Andrew. 2000. Knowledge and Practice in English Medicine, 1550–1680. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Warren, Beatrice. 1984. Classifying Adjectives. Gothenburg Studies in English 56. Göteburg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Publication order reference