The article deals with the basic approaches to defining the influence of neuroticism on the teachers’ satisfaction with the professional activity. At a time when social and economic instability creates a lack of confidence in the future, causes instability professional status of the subject work, and crisis external stimuli as stress factors cause asthenic emotions, we are seeing an increase in the level of emotional instability business work. This is especially true of the teachers, because of their professional activities, there are many stress factors (objective - an organizational role, and subjective - personal) that influence the job satisfaction and the profession as a whole, causing a certain level of emotional stability, lability (instability), neurotization (increased emotional instability) of employees. The psychological features of neuroticism, as a characteristic of emotional stability and instability, are revealed. The structural components of neuroticism are defined by the author: the index of life satisfaction, dominant emotional states (a propensity to experience anger, situational anxiety, emotional self-regulation, regulation of others’ emotions, self-control). The determinants of a teacher’s neuroticism are defined in the article. They are: professional competence, communicativeness, stress resistance, the absence of professional deformation revilement and emotional burning down. The factors which influence the teachers’ satisfaction with professional activity are the following: satisfaction with external working conditions, the domestic and social factors, the correspondence of work and leading work motives, the personal factors. Teachers’ satisfaction with professional activity is analyzed according to the following criteria: attitude to the educational establishment; the relationships among the teachers; satisfaction with the working conditions; teacher’s satisfaction with the status among the colleagues; work attitude; attitude to the students; attitude to school administration; attitude to the teaching staff members. The generalization of the findings leads to the conclusion that the teachers with high level of neuroticism feel considerably less satisfaction with the work they perform, with the colleagues and salary. The urgent imperative is the establishment of the professional conditions favorable for self-development, self-affirmation and implementation of the subjects of work.