The Notions «Health» and «Motion» in the Biological Concept of Physical Training in European Secondary Education
In the article different approaches to such notions as «health» and «motion» in the biological concept of physical training in European Secondary Education have been defined. The objectives of education in the sphere of physical culture have been considered and also emphasized an importance of individual approach to formulation of these objectives for each person separately. The impact of the lack of motor activity on a person’s health has been revealed and it has been emphasized that for a modern person, who led a sedentary lifestyle in most cases and as a result of it suffered from overweight and excessive emotional arousal, motion is indisputable biological need, both preventive and therapeutic. The peculiarities of practical realization of physical education biological concept in European secondary education have been outlined. Curricula for physical education have been analyzed. It has been established that the majority of objectives are connected with biological dimension. The methods of establishment of physical form level have been systemized. L. Denysiuk, J. Medliarski and R. Tzesniovski are considered to have made a great contribution in this sphere. In order to recognize the level of physical development of the pupils, and especially motor skills various methods and tests (for example, a series of tests by L. Denisyuk) have been developed. To provide information on physical development and fitness of the population massive research and comparison with the norm (measure the physical fitness of J. Medliarski recognized at a global level and its update in the works of R. Tzesniovski) are made. In addition, the conduct systematic studies that demonstrate progress in several dimensions: biological, psychological, social, allowing to trace the relationship between different indicators. The opinions of the critics about this matter have been analyzed. It has been found that the main disadvantage attributed to this theoretical approach was its ignoring of educational and socialization potential of physical exercises and physical activity in general. It has been pointed out that the main notions of biological concept such as «motion» and «health» were also crucial in other theoretical approaches to physical education organization in Europe, though their understanding and approaches to practical realization in physical culture were different.
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