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2014 | 1 | 41-62

Article title

Germany, China, and the Way to the Boxer Uprising



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Prior to 1897, Sino‑German relations were generally peaceful and in some respects beneficiary. Yet since the seizure of Jiaozhou, Germany was following a policy of harshness and used any opportunity to exert pressure on China. This was due to widespread feeling of racial, cultural, and religious superiority. Even though Germany wasn’t the first great power to gain Chinese territory after the Sino‑Japanese War, German seizure of Jiaozhou started the Scramble for Concessions. Christian missionaries didn’t respect Chinese beliefs, and they were in most cases supporting their converts against Chinese justice at all costs. The missionaries themselves were supported by Germany. German military had undertaken many punitive expeditions against inhabitants of Shandong, thus radicalized the people. At the same time, the “Boxer” movement had emerged in Shandong Due to inappropriate response of the authorities, the movement gained significance, and at the eve of the year 1900 it was ready to cause havoc in the metropolitan province of Zhili. At the court in Beijing, the most influential group was represented by anti‑foreign aristocrats.


  • Military History Institute in Prague, U Památníku 2, 130 05 Praha 3, Czech Republic


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