PL EN


Journal
2016 | 7 | 84-101
Article title

The soul in the mediaeval Psalter

Authors
Content
Title variants
PL
Dusza w średniowiecznym Psałterzu
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
The paper is an attempt to examine what lies at the heart and soul of the mediaeval Psalter in the contemporaneous approach(es) to its vernacularisations. In particular, the paper investigates the applications of the mediaeval translation theory in relation to a 12th-century Anglo-Norman, a 15th-century Middle French and four 14th-century Middle English prose Psalter renditions, with a view to locate them within the spirit of the attitude to biblical translations current in the Middle Ages and against the backdrop of the position of the Psalter in the period. In practical terms, the analysis is conducted on the basis of the equivalent selection strategies for rendering four Latin nouns central to the Psalter: anima, animae ‘soul,’ cor, cordis ‘heart’ and, perhaps surprisingly, ren, renis ‘kidney’ and lumbus, lumbi ‘loins’. All cases of variation in this respect are studied closely from intra- as well as extra-textual perspectives in order to establish the possible reasons behind the divergences, as these constitute exceptions rather than the rule, even in apparently heterodox renditions.
PL
Artykuł stanowi próbę bliższego przyjrzenia się podstawowym zasadom średniowiecznego podejścia do tłumaczenia psałterza na języki wernakularne. Przedstawiono w nim analizę zastosowania mediewalnej teorii tłumaczeń w odniesieniu do dwunastowiecznego Psałterza anglo-normandzkiego, piętnastowiecznego Psałterza średniofrancuskiego i czterech czternastowiecznych tłumaczeń Księgi Psalmów na średnioangielski. Celem było wykazanie, w jakim stopniu analizowane teksty odzwierciedlają ówczesne podejście do tłumaczeń biblijnych w kontekście znaczenia psałterza w średniowieczu. Badanie przeprowadzone jest na podstawie doboru ekwiwalentów w tłumaczeniu czterech – niezwykle istotnych z powodu rangi tych tekstów w średniowieczu – łacińskich rzeczowników: anima, animae‚ ‘dusza’, cor, cordis‚ ‘serce’ oraz, co może zaskoczyć, ren, renis‚ ‘nerka’ i lumbus, lumbi, ‘lędźwie’. Najwięcej uwagi poświęcono ustaleniu źródła analizowanej z perspektywy zarówno intra-, jak i ekstratekstualnej wariancji w doborze odpowiedników, jako że rozbieżność w tym względzie stanowi raczej wyjątek, a nie regułę, nawet w tłumaczeniach – wydawałoby się – heterodoksyjnych.
Journal
Year
Issue
7
Pages
84-101
Physical description
Dates
published
2016-06-30
Contributors
author
  • Katolicki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawła II [John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin], Lublin, Poland
References
  • Allen, R. S. (1988). Richard Rolle: The English writings. New York, NY: Paulist Press.
  • Alter, R. (2009). The Book of Psalms: A translation with commentary. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Berger, S. (1884). La Bible française au moyen age: étude sur les plus anciennes versions de la Bible écrites en prose de langue d'Oïl. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale.
  • Black, R., & St-Jacques, R. C. (Eds.). (2012). The Middle English glossed prose Psalter. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter.
  • Bramley, H. R. (Ed.). (1884). The Psalter, or Psalms of David and certain canticles with a translation and exposition in English by Richard Rolle of Hampole: Edited from manuscripts. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Bülbring, K. D. (Ed.). (1891). The earliest complete English prose Psalter together with eleven canticles and a translation of the Athanasian Creed: Edited from the only two MSS. in the libraries of the British Museum and of the Trinity College, Dublin with preface, introduction, notes and glossary (Pt. 1, Preface and text). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.
  • Charzyńska-Wójcik, M. (2013). Text and context in Jerome’s Psalters: Prose translations into Old, Middle and Early Modern English. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.
  • Charzyńska-Wójcik, M., & Charzyński, R. (2014). Listen to the text–on translation strategies in two historical Italian Psalters. In M. Charzyńska-Wójcik, J. Wójcik, & A. Bloch-Rozmej (Eds.), Language change: Faces and facets (pp. 77–97). Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.
  • Charzyńska-Wójcik, M., & Wójcik, J. (2013). Principles of equivalent selection in English prose translations of Jerome’s Psalters: A study based on ‘exaudire’ and ‘videre’. Roczniki Humanistyczne, 61(5), 27–45.
  • Copeland, R. (1989). The fortunes of ‘non verbum pro verbum’: Or why Jerome is not a Ciceronian. In R. Ellis (Ed.), The theory and practice of translation in the Middle Ages (pp. 15–35). Cambridge: D. S. Brewer.
  • Cunyus, J. G. (2009). The audacity of prayer: A fresh translation of the Book of Psalms (Latin-English edition). Glen Rose, TX: Searchlight Press.
  • Deanesly, M. (1920). The Lollard Bible and other medieval biblical versions. Cambridge: University Press.
  • Dictionnaire du Moyen Français, version 2012 (DMF 2012). (n.d.). ATILF – CNRS et Université de Lorraine. Retrieved 2 April 2016, from http://www.atilf.fr/dmf
  • Dove, M. (2006). Wyclif and the English Bible. In I. C. Levy (Ed.), A companion to John Wyclif (pp. 365–406). Leiden and Boston, MA: Brill.
  • Forshall, J., & Madden, F. (Eds.). (1850). The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New Testaments, with the apocryphal books, in the earliest English versions made from the Latin Vulgate by John Wycliffe and his followers. Oxford: University Press.
  • Fowler, D. C. (1960). John Trevisa and the English Bible. Modern Philology, 58(2), 81–98. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1086/389366
  • Hanna, R. (2003). English Biblical texts before Lollardy and their fate. In F. Somerset, J. C. Havens, & D. G. Pitard (Eds.), Lollards and their influence in late medieval England (pp. 141–153). Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1965). From Bede to Wyclif: Medieval English Bible translations. Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 48(1), 118–140.
  • Histoire de la Bible, Psautier et Apocalypse. (1401–1500). [Middle French Glossed Psalter] MS Bibliothèque nationale fonds française 6260. Retrieved 9 September 2015 from http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b9060447r.r=6260+psautier.langEN
  • Jerome. (n.d.). De optimo genere interpretandi – A Letter to the Senator Pammachius. Retrieved 2 April 2016, from http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/3001057.htm
  • Kurath, H., McAllister Kuhn, S., Reidy, J., Lewis, R. E. et al. (Eds.). (1952–2001). Middle English Dictionary. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Retrieved 9 September 2015 from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/med/
  • Lindberg, C. (1989). The Middle English Bible (Vol. 3, The Book of Judges). Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
  • Lis, K. (2015). Is there a method in this… madness? – on variance between two manuscript copies of a Middle English Psalter. Linguistics Beyond and Within, 1, 152–168.
  • Lis, K. (in press). Why differ? – divergent lexical choices in two Middle English prose Psalter translations and their ‘raison d’être’. To appear in M. Mamet-Michalkiewicz & A. Adamowicz- Pośpiech (Eds.), Translation in culture.
  • Marsden, R. (2011). The Bible in English in the Middle Ages. In S. Boynton & D. J. Reilly (Eds.), The practice of the Bible in the Middle Ages: Production, reception and performance in Western Christianity (pp. 272–295). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
  • McKinnon, J. W. (1999). The Book of Psalms, monasticism, and the Western liturgy. In N. van Deusen (Ed.), The place of the Psalms in the intellectual culture of the Middle Ages (pp. 43–58). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Michel, F. (Ed.). (1876). The Oxford Anglo-Norman Psalter [MS Bodleian Douce 320]. [Montebourg Psalter]. Retrieved 2 April 2016, from http://www.anglo-norman.net/sources/?session=SNW K32162T1441569310
  • Munday, J. (2009). Issues in translation studies. In J. Munday (Ed.), The Routledge companion to translation studies (revised ed., pp. 1–19). London: Routledge.
  • Nicholas of Lyra. (1492). Postilla super totam Bibliam. Strasbourg: Johannes Gruninger. Retrieved 2 April 2016, from http://www.umilta.net/nicholalyra.html
  • Norton, D. (2000). A history of the English Bible as literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511612251
  • Paues, A. C. (1902). A fourteenth century English Biblical version consisting of a prologue and parts of the New Testament edited from the manuscripts together with some introductory chapters on Middle English Biblical versions (prose-translations). Cambridge: University Press.
  • Rector, G. (2009). An illustrious vernacular: the Psalter ‘en romanz’ in twelfth-century England. In J. Wogan-Browne, C. Collette, M. Kowaleski, L. Mooney, A. Putter, & D. Trotter (Eds.), Language and culture in Medieval Britain: The French of England c.1100–c.1500 (pp. 198–206). York: York Medieval Press.
  • Rector, G. (2010). The Romanz Psalter in England and Northern France in the twelfth century: production, mise-en-page, and circulation. Journal of the Early Book Society, 13, 1–38.
  • Reuter, O. (1938). A study of the French words in the ‘Earliest Complete English Prose Psalter’. Societas Scientiarum Fennica: Commentationes Humanarum Litterarum, 9(4).
  • St-Jacques, R. C. (1989). Middle English Glossed Prose Psalter and its French source. In J Beer (Ed.), Medieval translators and their craft (pp. 135–154). Kalamazoo, MI: Medieval Institute Publications.
  • Sutherland, A. (2015). English psalms in the Middle Ages, 1300–1450. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198726364.001.0001
  • Trotter, D. A., Rothwell, W., de Wilde, G., & Pagan, H. (Eds.). (n.d.). Anglo-Norman Dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved 2 April 2016, from http://www.anglo-norman.net/
  • Van Deusen, N. (Ed.). (1999). The place of the Psalms in the intellectual culture of the Middle Ages. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • Wells, J. E. (1916). A manual of the writings in Middle English. 1050–1400. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Zinn, G. (1999). Introduction. In N. van Deusen (Ed.), The place of the Psalms in the intellectual culture of the Middle Ages (pp. xi–xv). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-101150b3-9461-4778-b43a-21f4e3c66419
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.