Familien in Ungarn. Werte, Normen, Tendenzen
Families in Hungary. Values, patterns, trends
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According to the regular value-surveys Hungary belongs to the secular-rational and material thinking countries. As a heritage of communism there are a strong basis of paternalist structures and a low rate of trust and social capital. Although family and children are important and central parts of Hungarian value system, there are a high rate of divorces and non-marital cohabitation and a low level of willingness to marriage and childbearing in Hungarian society. Fertility index (1,3) is one of the lowest in Europe. In the background of unfavourable indicators we can find the crisis of values. These values and patterns have formed in different historical situations and effect on people as a special mixture of norms. External circumstances do not allow people to develop their learned values. Women at the labour market are impacted by double pressure: in a modern society after the expansion of higher education they are motivated to work and build a carrier. (It is also a compulsion because of the insufficient incomes.) On the other hand they share traditional values, too: women are responsible for the happiness and cohesion of families. Social problems, uncertain future, inflexible and labile workplaces do not support them to have a real chance for decision. This paper attempts to give a view about the state and roots of Hungarian values in connections with family patterns and also the current demographic trends. State, local governments, NGOs, churches and other actors in the field of social policy have a great challenge to protect and strengthen families for a renewable and sustainable society.
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