КОРРЕКЦИЯ И РЕАБИЛИТАЦИЯ ДЕТЕЙ С ОСОБЫМИ ПОТРЕБНОСТЯМИ: СОЦИАЛЬНО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ВОПРОС НАШЕГО ВРЕМЕНИ
Correction and rehabilitation of children with special needs: social and political question of nowadays
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In the paper the problem of correction and rehabilitation of children as a social and political question of the 21st century, concerning either Europe or other developed and developing nations, is discussed. The Author suggests and proves that it is necessary to use an intersubject scientific approach to this question, as far as we have to analyze this topic either from the point of view of social safety net, of pedagogical, psychological sciences and jurisprudence. The aim of the article is to provide an overview of international norms and laws regulating this matter and, on turn, show how all these factors are tightly linked with each other. Moreover, such topics draw international community’s attention to national and cultural characteristics, causing a particular concern. In the paper, the Author led a comparative analyze of history of childhood like a passage of a stage of non-recognition of children as social agents as such to their legal equality, whose top was the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, issued in 1959. In spite of it, the Author alters that the way to come to a complete recognition of children is quite long already, because of the fact that we do not have a complete agreement neither in International right nor in national laws relations between law enforcement community, social services, children and their families. On that premises, Author of the present paper analyzed European, American and Russian system of juvenile justice, and it has been found that there are sharp differences in these systems, because if, on one hand, in Europe, children are given more rights than in America, where the concept “juvenile age” can change according to crime rate in the States. In Russia, situation is more difficult, because there is no developed system of juvenile justice and children are treated like adults, during trails, for example. After his comparative study, the Author could arrive at the conclusion that the state of affairs concerning children with special needs is not fully protected by law. If we take into account the dynamics of macro- and microeconomics, it is clear that go on cost cutbacks in social sphere retarding the regulation of such question as an international generally accepted system concerning the defense of rights of children’s special categories.
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