Kafle z zamku w Dubiecku : z problematyki badawczej i konserwatorskiej zabytkowego założenia pałacowo-parkowego w Dubiecku
TILES FROM DUBIECKO CASTLE (A CONTRIBUTION TO THE RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PROBLEMS OF A MONUMENTAL PALATIAL AND PARK ASSEMBLY IN DUBIECKO NEAR PRZEMYŚL)
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The Neo-classical palace in Dubiecko, in course of the later reconstructions greatly deprived of its original style features, for good many years did not awake interests of conservators and art historians neither. It was mainly known as the birth-place of Ignatius Krasicki, Polish poet of the second half of the 18th century. Owing to on-the- spot researches carried out in 1965— 1966 built into the walls and within the porch area a considerable both as to their number and size quantity of the above-ground level walls have been discovered and also a series of earth-swamped cellars and foundations going back to the Renaissance time. Using technological method the author was able to select in this object several architectural stages of which most interesting are the two oldest ones. As the first should be named here the early Renaissance stage of castellum erected in the mid-century by Stanislaus Matthew Stadnicki. It has been built on a square plan with a courtyard within it. During the second stage, on the turn of the 16th century, s e veral construction works were carried out by Stanislaus and George Krasicki. It was the time when the following were built: so called treasury, courtyard cloisters and those adjacent to the castle, while in the park an ample mansion of bricks, so called „Krasiczynek”, playing the part of a garden belvedere. In connection with the above-mentioned two stages remain the tiles which have been found in form of several hundreds of fragments varying considerably as to their sizes. Of particular interest are the tiles discovered under the treasury flooring. With few exceptions they form a coherent set of samples with regard to their forms, style and technology of make. The set consists mostly of enormously large, perfectly proportioned and scarcely decorated tiles which at the same time exhibit high precision of their make and are, as a rule, totally deprived of glazing; instead they show some barely perceptible traces of lime engobe and vermillion paint grounding. In general they come from the mid-sixteenth century and seem to be once components of an early Renaissance stove which presumably was not free of the late Gothic reminiscences in its styling. From the fragments on hand it is possible to assume that the stove was composed of at least two fire-boxes the lower of whom was adorned with coat-of-arms escutcheons while the sto v e ’s top trimmed with two coronets. Both the sizes of fully set together tiles and the number of pieces with considerable decrements provide the evidence that the stove must have been rather big one as to its size. In a coherent set of tiles coming from the above-mentioned stove quite a small group of fragments might be isolated dating as far back as to the second half of the 16th century; they are coated with green-coloured glazing, some of them with no glazing at all, and decorated with a central motive of rosette. In addition, a group of multi-colour tiles from the turn of the 16th century was found having continuous decorative motives. From among the tiles dug out of the debris swamping the damaged cellars of that what once was the south wing of the castle deserve special attention fragments of a late-Gothic, probably 16th century tile ornated with the open-work tracery front wall glazed in green. The 1965 and 1966 examinations are to be handled as preliminaries to a series of intended large-scale researches. It is expected that their full realization should, apart from discovering of unknown architectural fragments, result in finding of further, by no means less valuable tiles. Those found and properly preserved should be exposed in a biographical museum whose three rooms are entirely devoted to the memory of Ignatius Krasicki. This museum has been called into being as the branch of the existing Przemyśl Regional Museum which was organized with a considerable support given by the Hardboard Factory, Przemyśl who are using the palace together with the surrounding monumental park as a recreational centre for their workers.
- M. P i ą t k i e w i c z - D e r e n i o w a Kafle w aw e l skie okresu wczesnego renesansu, „Studia do Dziejow Wawelu”, t. II, Krakow 1961, s. 309.
- A. S w i e c h o w s k a Kafle warszawskie, „Szkice Staromiejskie”, Warszawa 1955, s. 163.
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- J. S a s - Z u b r z y c k i Kaflarstwo polskie, Lublin 1915, tabl. XIII.
- J. J a n o w s k i Przyczynki do historii zamku w Odr zykoniu pow. Krosno w świetle badań archeologicznych, „Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego za rok 1966, s. 98.
- J. T. F r a z i k Ze studiow i badań nad zamkiem w Dubiecku, cz. I, „Teka Komisji Urbanistyki i Architektury”, Krakow 1968, t. II, s. 207—223 oraz cz. II tamże, Krakow 1970, t. III, s. 159—177.
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