Posłowie i senatorowie w składach gabinetów II Rzeczypospolitej w latach 1919−1939. Prawo i praktyka parlamentarna
Deputies to the Sejm and Senators in the Memberships of Cabinets of the Second Republic of Poland in 1919−1939: Parliamentary Law and Practice
Languages of publication
Political and parliamentary systems of the Second Republic of Poland in the fi rst years of its existence was based on the European continental models, mostly the French ones. This remark concerns also the issue of parliamentarisation of ministerial posts, also referred to as mutual interpenetration of the legislative and executive powers. During the operation of the Legislative Sejm (1919–1922) the legal basis of constitutional practices in this area was provided by customary law, raised to constitutional rank under the Basic Law of 1921 and — despite the formal break with a parliamentary-cabinet system provided for by April Constitution of 1935 — effectively operating as positive-law norm of an ordinary statute. The characteristic traits of Polish parliamentary practice of the 20-year interwar period include: extension of the possibility of holding positions in government jointly with the exercise of a parliamentary mandate on the office of the undersecretary of state, parliamentary ministers serving on the so-called expert (non-parliamentary) cabinets and the participation of expert Ministers (in 1919–1922 even numerically predominating) in the composition of “ministries” created by a coalition of Sejm (parliamentary) factions. The practice of appointing Deputies and Senators to governments was continued in the period following the May coup, and even intensifi ed in the 1930s, despite the fact that they were of a purely extra-parliamentary nature. It should be noted, however, that if under the parliamentary-cabinet system the mutual interpenetration of legislative and executive was aimed, in general, to enhance cooperation between these two constitutional institutions, under the reign of Sanacja it rather refl ected either the fi ght against parliamentarism (breaking the internal cohesion of political groups represented in the Sejm) or political and personal struggles within its leadership.
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