PL EN


2015 | 61 | 23-36
Article title

New considerations about meaning of the form and the conventional symbols found on monetary signs (6th-5th centuries BC)

Content
Title variants
PL
Nowe uwagi o znaczeniu i zwyczajowych opisach środków płatniczych (VI-V wiek p.n.e.)
Languages of publication
EN
Abstracts
EN
One of the main questions to be put to the evidence is what is the connection between the shape of monetary signs in use and everyday reality in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. Also, if they were commercial items, what was their significance, because they don’t fully express the function of currency? Were they made in the shape of arrowheads without ultimately symbolizing anything of the purpose for which they were created? In fact, ‘arrowhead’ monetary signs represent measurable symbols, used in real trade transactions as a ‘standard’ in certain regions. They were established to act as a counterpart for quantities of goods, which were at the time in question grain and fish products. These two commodities seem to be the most sought after by the local population of Greek origin population. These monetary signs could represent, after a primary connection had been established by spindle-shaped arrowheads, through other stages too throughout the second half of the 6th century BC, evolve into other shapes, in the classic cases representations in the shape of cereal grain, or marine fish respectively. Our opinion is that the interpretation of these signs must have been unequivocal for the population of 6th and 5th centuries BC, or, more precisely the interpretation of their significance and destination. Here we are not referring to real arrowheads used in battle. In casting these monetary signs items the elements which were selected for local exchange were depicted in a selected shape. This means that the simplest one, an arrowhead, represents this symbolically, it is not a real weapon. They represent instead the exchange items for which they were created: cereals-wheat ears or wheat and barley grains, fishery products etc. These new considerations were suggested to us by the study of the monetary symbolism throughout the Greek world. Special attention has been given to the presence, on some of the “arrowhead” monetary signs of the first type (especially the cast monetary signs), of a series of symbols that could be linked, it is assumed, to some monetary workshops of the West-Pontic colonies. They appear chiefly, if not in their entirety, on the “arrowhead” signs in the shape of a laurel leaf, with elongated form with a prominence of central rib and edge.
PL
Celem prezentowanych studiów jest rozważenie związku kształtu monetopodobnych form pieniądza charakterystycznych dla zachodniego i północnego wybrzeża Morza Czarnego z wytworami codziennego użytku. Uwagi odnoszą się do świata greckiego VI i V w. p.n.e. Pieniądz ten był środkiem płatniczym używanym w handlu, chociaż wydaje się, że nie w pełni oddawał on funkcje pieniądza monetarnego. Pieniądze w kształcie grotów strzał nie muszą symbolizować celu militarnego, dla którego pierwotnie zostały stworzone. W rzeczywistości znaki pieniężne w formie grotów strzał to możliwy do policzenia środek pieniężny używany w gospodarce, przede wszystkim w handlu, przy zastosowaniu rozmaitych „standardów” regionalnych. Zostały one wykreowane jako równoważniki dóbr, w tym czasie w pierwszej kolejności zboża i ryb. Te grupy towarów były szczególnie pożądane przez Greków i znaki pieniężne wydają się być szczególnie powiązane z nimi, także poprzez ich formę („groty strzał” w formie liścia przypominające kształtem ziarno). Dlatego uznano za celowe zaproponowanie bardziej jednoznacznej oceny tych znaków pieniężnych, ich znaczenia i przeznaczenia na tle sytuacji właściwej dla VI I V w. p.n.e. Po prostu skorzystano z popularnych wzorów, aby stworzyć środek ułatwiający wymianę. Opinię tę wspierają studia z zakresu ikonografii greckiej.
Year
Volume
61
Pages
23-36
Physical description
Dates
published
2015
Contributors
References
  • Anokhin V.A. 1986. Monety-strelki. In Olviya i ee okruga. Kiev.
  • Aricescu A. 1975. Tezaurul de semne de schimb premonetare de la Enisala. “Studii şi Cercetări de Numismatică” 6, 17-24.
  • Avram A. 1989. Pentru o fenomenologie a raporturilor dintre geţi i greci. In Symposia Thracologica 7. Tulcea, 70-93.
  • Borba Florenzano M.B. 1993. Political propaganda in Agathocles Coins. In Actes du XI Congres de Numismatique, Bruxelles 1991. Louvain-La-Neuve, 71-77.
  • Bouyon B. 1998. Etudes de gravure monetaire, de ľItalie grecque archaique à ľEurope du 17e siècle. Wetteren.
  • Cahn H.A. 2000. La Moneta greca dalle guerre persiane ad Alessandro Magno. In La Moneta Greca e Romana. Roma, 33-43.
  • Canarache V. 1954. Atelierele monetare din antichitate i rolul lor în dezvoltarea vieţii economice din spaţiul carpato-dunărean. In Studii şi Referate privind Istoria României, 1. Bucureşti, 181-193.
  • Cojocaru V. 2010. Interferenţe greco-scitice ca reflecţie a circulaţiei monetare la marginea stepei. “Cercetări Istorice” 24-26, 87-114.
  • Cojocaru V. 2011. Von Pfeilspitzen zu „skythischen“ Münzen: Zur griechisch-skythischen Beziehungen im Spiegel des Geldumlaufs am Rande der Steppe. In L. Präger (ed.), Nomadismus in der „Alten Welt“: Formen der Repräsentation in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Münster-Berlin-Wien-Zürich-London, 26-49.
  • Domăneanţu C. and Poenaru Bordea Gh. 1985. Un tezaur de monede vârfuri de săgeată de la Nuntaşi (jud. Constanţa). In Symposia Thracologica 3. Constanţa, 58.
  • Gorini G. 1980. La Monetazione. In Da Aquaileia a Venezia,Cultura, Contatti e tradizioni. Milano, 697-749.
  • Hind J.G.F. 1985. Ancores, Crayfish and facing Heads: Silver coins of Apollonia on the Euxine Sea. “Thracia Pontica” 2, 89-104.
  • Howgego C. 2005. Istoria antică prin monedă. Cluj-Napoca.
  • Iacob M., Mănucu-Adameteanu M. and Poenaru Bordea Gh. 2001. Argamum. Descoperiri monetare. Conspect preliminar. “Materiale şi Cercetări Arheologice” I, 1999. Bucureti, 203-215.
  • Irimia M. 1975. Observaţii privind arheologia secolelor VII-V î.e.n. în Dobrogea. „Pontica” 8, 89-114.
  • Karayotov I. 1995. Le monnayage d`Apollonia a la lumiere des decouvertes les plus recentes. In Thracia, 11, Serdica, Studia in honorem Alexandri Fol. Sofia, 397-408.
  • Karayotov I. 2005. Le Monnayage ďargent ďApollonia et de Messambria aux Ve-IVe s. av. J.-C. In Monetite i Banknotite. Jubileen Sbornik v cest na st. n. s. d-r Hristo Haritonov. Veliko Tîrnovo, 46-62.
  • Kernbach V. 1995. Dicţionar de mitologie generală. Mituri. Divinităţi. Religii. Bucureşti.
  • Konova L. 2005. Symbols of Apollo reflected in the currency of Apollonia Pontica. “Numismatica i Sfragistica” 10, 3-12.
  • Lazarenko I. 2006. Antique and Medieval Coins from Varna and the Varna Region, The Treasures of the Varna Museum of Archaeology. Varna.
  • Martin T.R. 1996. Why did the Greek polis originally needed coins? “Historia” 45.3, 257-283.
  • Mănucu-Adameteanu M. 1984. Tezaurul de semne premonetare în formă de vârf de săgeată de la Viina (com. Jurilovca, jud. Tulcea). “Studii şi Cercetări de Numismatică” 8, 17-24.
  • Mănucu-Adameteanu M. 1992. Orgamé polis. “Pontica” 25, 55-67.
  • Mihăilescu-Bîrliba V. 1990. Dacia răsăriteană în secolele VI–I î.e.n. Economie i monedă. Iai.
  • Mitrea B. 1970. Descoperiri recente i mai vechi de monede antice i bizantine în Republica Socialistă România. “Studii şi Cercetări de Istorie Veche” 21.2, 331-347.
  • Mitrea B. 1982. Roata, simbol solar pe monedele histriene. “Pontica” 15, 89-97.
  • Mitrea B. 1983. Etape cronologice în relaţiile Histriei cu geto-dacii pe baza monedelor. In Symposia Thracologica. Craiova, 43-45.
  • Mitrea B. 1984. Etape cronologice în relaţiile Histriei cu geto-dacii pe baza monedelor. “Thraco-Dacica” 5.1-2, 114-122.
  • Poenaru Bordea Gh. 1970. Discuţii pe marginea câtorva monede străine din Dobrogea antică. “Studii şi Cercetări de Istorie Veche” 21.1, 133-144.
  • Poenaru Bordea Gh. 1996-1998. Découvertes monétaires en Roumanie 1994-1996 (XXXVIII–XL). “Dacia” N.S., 40-42, 425-466.
  • Poenaru Bordea Gh. 2001. Atelierul monetar al cetăţi Istros în perioada autonomiei. In Simpozion de Numismatică, dedicat împlinirii a patru secole de la prima unire a românilor sub Mihai Voievod Viteazul, Chiinău, 28-30 mai 2000, Comunicări, studii u note. Bucureti, 9-33.
  • Poenaru Bordea Gh. and Oberländer-Târnoveanu E. 1980. Contributions a ľétude des monnaie-pointes de fleche a la lumiere des trésors de Jurilovca, dép. de Tulcea. In Actes du IIe Congres International de Thracologie (Bucarest, 4-10 septembre 1976, vol. II, Histoire et Archéologie). Bucureti, 141-150.
  • Popescu Em. 1959. Les relations d’Istros et d’Apollonie du Pont a l’époque hellénistique. A propos d’une inscription inédite “Dacia” N.S., 3, 235-258.
  • Preda C. 1998. Istoria monedei în Dacia preromană, Bucureti.
  • Preda C. 2003. Noutăţi numismatice histriene. “Buletinul Societăţii Numismatice Române” 92-97, 1998-2003. 146-151, 19-25.
  • Preda C, Nubar H. 1973.Histria III. Descoperiri monetare 1914-1970. Bucureti.
  • Rădulescu A., Scorpan C 1972. Rezultate preliminare ale săpăturilor arheologice din Tomis (Parcul Catedralei), 1971-1974. “Pontica” 8, 9-54.
  • Scorpan C. 1980. Vârfuri de săgeţi-semne premonetare şi monede histriene cu “roata” descoperite la Tomis. “Studii şi Cercetări de Numismatică” 7, 25-34.
  • Severeanu G. 1926. Sur les monnaies primitives des Scythes. Lingots-monnaie en formes de pointe de fléche. “Buletinul Societăţii Numismatice Române ” 21.57-58, 1-6.
  • Sorda S. 1980. A proposito di un rinvenimento di punte di freccia. “Annali Istituto Italiani di Numismatica” 26, 185-206.
  • Stingl T. 2004. Gedanken zum Beginn des Münzwesens in Schwarzmeerraum. In Numismatic and Sphragistic Contributions to History of the Western Black Sea Coast, International Conference, Varna, Septembre 12th-15th, 2001. “Acta Musei Varnensis” II, 7-16.
  • Talmaţchi G. 2000. Date noi privind descoperirile monetare grecești din Dobrogea. “Analele Dobrogei” S. N., 6. 1, 9-36.
  • Talmaţchi G. 2001. Contribuţii privind circulaţia monetară dobrogeană în secolele VI-I a. Chr., “Analele Universităţii Creştine Dimitrie Cantemir” 4, 120-145.
  • Talmaţchi G 2008. Semnele monetare şi monetăriile vestpontice dobrogene (secolele VI-V a. Chr.-stadiul cercetărilor, noi ipoteze şi perspective. In Monedă şi Comerţ în sud-estul Europei, II. Sibiu, 7-32.
  • Talmaţchi G. 2009. Despre semnele monetare din zona de vest şi nord-vest a Pontului Euxin (secolele VI-V a.Chr.). “Pontica” 42, 587-610.
  • Talmaţchi G. 2009b. Arrowhead monetary symbols on the western pontic coast: from symbol to trade (6th-5th centuries B.C.). In G. R. Tsetskhladze (ed.), 4th International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities, The Bosporus: Gateway between the Ancient West and East (1st Millennium B.C.-5th Century A.D.), (Istanbul 14-18 September 2009), Summaries of papers. Istanbul, 93.
  • Talmaţchi G. 2010. Semne monetare din aria de vest şi nord-vest a Pontului Euxin. De la simbol la comerţ (secolele VI-V a.Chr.). Cluj-Napoca.
  • Talmaţchi G. 2011. Monetăriile oraşelor vest-pontice Histria, Callatis şi Tomis în epocă autonomă. Cluj Napoca.
  • Talmachi G. 2013. New possible approach on the significance of ”arrowhead”-shaped monetary signs especially cast for trade purposes. “Peuce” 11, 307-326.
  • Talmaţchi G. and Matei I. 2003. Some pre-account issues discovered in Dobrodgea, Strabon, I, 2, Juillet-Décembre, 35-38.
  • Talmaţchi G. and Băjenaru C. 2009. Câteva semne monetare descoperite în Dobrogea. “Buletinul Societăţii Numismatice Române”, 98-103, (2004-2009). 152-157, 187-191.
  • Topalov S. 2007. Apollonia Pontica. Contribution to the study of the coin minting of the city 6th-1st c. B.C., vol. I-II. Sofia.
  • von Reden S. 1997. Money, Law and Exchange: Coinage in the Greek Polis. “Journal of Hellenic Studies” 117, 154-176.
  • Zaginailo A.G. 1982. Kamenskii klad strelovidnykh litykh monet. In Numizmatika Antichnogo Prichenomor`ya. Kiev, 20-28.
  • Wąsowicz A. 1975. Olbia Pontique et sont territoire. Ľ aménagement de ľespace. Paris.
  • Wells H.B. 1978a. The arrow-money of Thrace and southern Russia. A review and discussion of eastern European and soviet writing, part I. “SAN” 9.1, 6-9 and 12.
  • Wells H.B. 1978b. The arrow-money of Thrace and southern Russia. A review and discussion of eastern European and soviet writing, part II. “SAN” 9.2, 24-26 and 31.
  • Wells H.B. 1982. A western archeologist`s article on arrow-head money. “SAN” 13.3, 57-58.
  • Wells H.B. 1983. A further study of arrow-head money. “SAN” 14, 53-54.
  • Catalogues
  • SNG ANS – Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Collection of the American Numismatic Society, New York (New York, 1969 - present).
  • SNG Cop. – Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Denmark, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum, Copen-hagen. (Copenhagen, 1942-1979).
  • SNG Kayhan – Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Turkey 1: The Muharrem Kayhan Collection, Istanbul, 2002.
  • Auctions
  • La Galerie Numismatique 2004 – Bogdan Stambuliu, Vente Eux Encheres IV. Laussane, Dimanche, 28, Novembre.
  • Numismatica 2013 – Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 72, Auction date: 16 May 2013.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0065-0986
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-1a9d2332-74ea-4251-b5d6-cabc1e94deb1
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.