2018 | XXXI | 27-65
Article title

Divine Wrath in Ancient Egypt

Title variants
Languages of publication
This article aims at examining the theme of divine wrath according to Egyptian religious beliefs, in connection with deities and worshippers. It is a matter of theological concern to examine the theme of divine wrath in various texts describing the rage of deities. The paper thoroughly discusses the theme of divine wrath, its addressees, effects, purposes, provocations, and the possibility of avoidance and pacification, as well as the linguistic expressions of wrath. It discusses the notion of wrath, its perceived consequences and infliction on the deities, living humans and the deceased. It also examines divine wrath in relation to the experience of suffering and affliction as well as that of protection and welfare. The analysis provides information on the core of the Egyptian religion investigated from the perspective of wrath.
  • Allen, J. 2005: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Atlanta
  • Allen, J. 2010: Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, Cambridge-New York
  • Allen, J. 2015: Middle Egyptian Literature: Eight Literary Works of the Middle Kingdom, Cambridge
  • Allen, T. 1974: The Book of the Dead or Going Forth by Day. Ideas of the Ancient Egyptians concerning the Hereafter as Expressed in Their Own Terms, SAOC 37, Chicago
  • Andrews, C. 1994: Amulets of Ancient Egypt, London
  • Assmann, J. 1975: Ägyptische Hymnen und Gebete. Eingeleitet, übersetzt und erläutert, Die Bibliothek der alten Welt, Zürich
  • Assmann, J. 1983: Sonnenhymnen in Thebanischen Gräbern, Theben 1, Mainz a/Rhein
  • Assmann, J. 1989: State and Religion in the New Kingdom, [in:] Simpson, W.K. (Ed.), Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt, YES 3, New Haven, 55–88
  • Assmann, J. 1995: Egyptian Solar Religion in the New Kingdom. Re, Amun and the Crisis of Polytheism, London-New York
  • Assmann, J. 2001: The Search for God in Ancient Egypt, Ithaca-London
  • Assmann, J. 2003: The Mind of Egypt. History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs, Cambridge-London
  • Aufrère, S. 1991: L’univers minéral dans la pensée égyptienne 1–2, BiEtud 105, Le Caire
  • Baines, J. 1990: Restricted Knowledge, Hierarchy, and Decorum: Modern Perceptions and Ancient Institutions, JARCE 27, 1–23
  • Bakir, A. 1966: The Cairo Calendar no. 86637, Cairo
  • Barns, J.W.B. (Ed.) 1956: Five Ramesseum Papyri, Oxford
  • Beckerath, J. von 1968: Die « Stele der Verbannten » im Museum des Louvre, RdE 20, 7–36
  • Benedite, G. 1893: Description et histoire de l’île de Philae. Textes hiéroglyphiques. Le temple de Philae, 1er fasc., MMAF 13, Paris
  • Betz, H. (Ed.) 1986: The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, Including the Demotic Spells, Chicago-London
  • Bierbrier, M.L., Meulenaere, H.J. de 1984: Hymne à Taouêret sur une stèle de Deir el-Médineh, [in:] Sundries in Honor of Torgny Säve-Söderbergh, Boreas 13, Uppsala, 23–32
  • Blackman, A.M., Fairman, H.W. 1944: The Myth of Horus at Edfu-II: C. The Triumph of Horus over His Enemies: A Sacred Drama (concluded), JEA 30, 5–22
  • Bleeker, C.J. 1969: The Religion of Ancient Egypt, [in:] Bleeker, C.J., Widengren, G. (Eds), Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions 1, Religions of the Past, Leiden, 40–114
  • Bleeker, C.J. 1973: Hathor and Thoth, Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion, Leiden
  • Borghouts, J.F. 1978: Ancient Egyptian Magical Texts, NISABA 9, Leiden
  • Borghouts, J.F. 1982: Divine Intervention in Ancient Egypt and its Manifestation (bAw), [in:] Demarée, R., Janssen, J. (Eds), Gleanings from Deir El-Medîna, EgUit 1, Leiden, 1–70
  • Borghouts, J.F. 2007: Book of the Dead (39): From Shouting to Structure, SAT 10, Wiesbaden
  • Bruyère, B. 1939: Rapport sur les fouilles de Deir el Médineh (1934–1935), FIFAO 16/3, Le Caire
  • Buck, A. de 1935: The Egyptian Coffin Texts. Texts of Spells, 1–75, vol. 1, OIP 34, Chicago
  • Caminos, R.A. 1958: The Chronicle of Prince Osorkon, AnOr 37, Roma
  • Caminos, R.A. 1964: The Nitocris Adoption Stela, JEA 50, 71–101
  • Capel, A., Markoe, G. (Eds) 1996: Mistress of the House, Mistress of the Heaven: Women in Ancient Egypt. Exhibition, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, Ohio, 5 January 1997, The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York, 21 February–18 May 1997, Cincinnati
  • Carrier, C. 2004a: Textes des sarcophages du Moyen Empire égyptien 1, Monaco
  • Carrier, C. 2004b: Textes des sarcophages du Moyen Empire égyptien 2, Monaco
  • Carrier, C. 2004c: Textes des sarcophages du Moyen Empire égyptien 3, Monaco
  • Carrier, C. 2009: Le Livre des Morts de l’Égypte ancienne, Paris
  • Carrier, C. 2010a: Textes des pyramides de l’Égypte ancienne II: Textes de la pyramide de Pépy Ier, Paris
  • Carrier, C. 2010b: Textes des pyramides de l’Égypte ancienne IV: Textes des pyramides de Mérenrê, d’Aba, de Neit, d’Ipout et d’Oudjebten, Paris
  • Chassinat, É. 1934: Le temple de Dendara 1, Le Caire
  • Collier, M., Quirke, S. (Eds) 2004: The UCL Lahun Papyri: Religious, Literary, Legal, Mathematical and Medical, BAR-IS 1209, Oxford
  • Collombert, P., Coulon, L. 2000: Les dieux contre la mer. Le début du “papyrus d’Astarté” (pBN 202), BIFAO 100, 193–242
  • Couyat, J., Montet, P. 1912: Les inscriptions hiéroglyphiques et hiératiques du Ouâdi Hammâmât, MIFAO 134, Le Caire
  • Daressy, G. 1894: Remarques et notes, RecTrav 16, 123–133
  • Darnell, J.C. 1997: The Apotropaic Goddess in the Eye, SAK 22, 35–48
  • Darnell, J.C. 2004: The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian Unity. Cryptographic Compositions in the Tombs of Tutankhamun, Ramesses VI and Ramesses IX, OBO 198, Fribourg
  • Daumas, F. 1975: Besänftigung, [in:] LÄ I, 724–727
  • D’Auria, S. 2010: Offerings to the Discerning Eye: an Egyptological Medley in Honor of Jack A. Josephson, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 38, Leiden
  • Edel, E. 1984: Die Inschriften der Grabfronten der Siut-Gräber in Mittelägypten aus der Herakleopolitenzeit, Opladen
  • Edwards, I. 1960: Oracular Amuletic Decrees of the Late New Kingdom 1, Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum 4, London
  • El-Sayed, R. 1981: Nehaher, BIFAO 81/1, 119–140
  • Epigraphic Survey 1930: The Excavation of Medinet Habu I. Earlier historical records of Ramses III, Medinet Habu I, OIP 8, Chicago 1930
  • Epigraphic Survey 1954: Reliefs and inscriptions at Karnak III: The Bubastite Portal, OIP 74, Chicago 1954
  • Erman, A., Wilcken, U. 1900: Die Naukratisstele, ZÄS 38, 127–135
  • Eyre, C. 2013: The Use of Documents in Pharaonic Egypt, Oxford
  • Faulkner, R. 1933: The Papyrus Bremner-Rhind (British Museum No. 10188), BiAeg 3, Bruxelles
  • Faulkner, R. 1934: The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys, [in:] Mélanges Maspero I: Orient ancien, MIFAO 66, Le Caire, 337–348
  • Faulkner, R. 1937: The Bremner-Rhind papyrus–III, JEA 23/2, 166–185
  • Faulkner, R. 1938: The Bremner-Rhind papyrus–IV, JEA 24/1, 41–53
  • Faulkner, R. 1969: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Oxford
  • Faulkner, R. 1972: A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford
  • Faulkner, R. 1973: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts I. Spells 1–354, Warminster
  • Faulkner, R. 1977: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts II. Spells 355–787, Warminster
  • Faulkner, R. 1978: The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts III. Spells 788–1185 & Index, Warminster
  • Faulkner, R. 1985: The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, London
  • Faulkner, R., Goelet, O. 1998: The Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Book of Going Forth by Day. Being the Papyrus of Ani (Royal Scribe of the Divine Offerings), San Francisco
  • Frandsen, P.J. 1998: On the Avoidance of Certain Forms of Loud Voices to the Sacred, [in:] Clarysse, W., Schoors, A., Willems, H. (Eds), Egyptian Religion: The Last Thousand Years II: Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Jan Quaegebeur, OLA 84, Leuven, 975–1000
  • Frankfort, H. 1948: Kingship and the Gods. A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society & Nature, Chicago
  • Frankfort, H. 1949: Ancient Egyptian Religion: An Interpretation, New York
  • Gardiner, A. 1909: The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage from a Hieratic Papyrus in Leiden (Pap. Leiden 344 recto), Leipzig
  • Gardiner, A. 1911: Egyptian Hieratic Texts I. Literary Texts of the New Kingdom. The Papyrus Anastasi I and the Papyrus Koller Together with the Parallel Texts, Leipzig
  • Gardiner, A. 1932: Late-Egyptian Stories, BiAeg 1, Bruxelles
  • Gardiner, A. 1957: Hymns to Sobek in a Ramesseum Papyrus, RdE 11, 43–56
  • Gardiner, A. 1959: A Didactic Passage Re-Examined, JEA 45, 12–15
  • Gardiner, A. 1962: The Gods of Thebes as Guarantors of Personal Property, JEA 48, 57–69
  • Germond, P. 1981: Sekhmet et la protection du monde, AegHelv 9, Geneva
  • Goyon, J.-C. 1972: Confirmation du pouvoir royal au nouvel an [Brooklyn Museum Papyrus 47.218.50], BiEtud 52, Le Caire
  • Goyon, J.-C. 1974: Sur une formule des rituels de conjuration des dangers de l’année : en marge du papyrus de Brooklyn 47.218.50. II, BIFAO 74, 75–83
  • Grapow, H. 1931: Die Welt vor der Schöpfung (Ein Beitrag zur Religionsgeschichte), ZÄS 67, 34–38
  • Griffith, F. 1889: The Inscriptions of Siût and Dêr Rîfeh, London
  • Griffiths, J.G. 1972: Symbolism of Red in Egyptian Religion, Ex Orbe Religionum 24, Leiden, 81–90
  • Hannig, R. 2006: Ägyptisches Wörterbuch II. Mittleres Reich und Zweite Zwischenzeit, Teil 1, KAW 112, Mainz a/Rhein
  • Hoens, D.J. 1982: A Short Survey of the History Egyptian Religion in the Netherlands, [in:] Voss, M.H. van, Hoens, D.J., Mussies, G., Plas, D. van der, Velde, H. te (Eds), Studies in Egyptian Religion Dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee, Leiden, 11–27
  • Hollis, S. 2008: The Ancient Egyptian “Tale of Two Brothers”: A Mythological, Religious, Literary, and Historico-political Study, Oakville
  • Hornung, E. 1975: Seth, Geschichte und Bedeutung eines ägyptischen Gottes, Symbolon N.F. 2, 49–64
  • Hornung, E., Abt, T. 2007: The Egyptian Amduat. The Book of the Hidden Chamber, Zürich
  • Jansen-Winkeln, K. 2007: Inschriften der Spätzeit II. Die 22.–24. Dynastie, Wiesbaden
  • Jansen-Winkeln, K. 2014: Inschriften der Spätzeit IV. Die 26. Dynastie, Wiesbaden
  • Jay, J.E. 2016: Orality and Literacy in the Demotic Tales, Culture and History of the Ancient Near East 81, Leiden
  • Jelinkova-Reymond, E. 1956: Les inscriptions de la statue guérisseuse de Djed-Her-le-Sauveur, BiEtud 23, Le Caire
  • Jéquier, G. 1911: Le Papyrus Prisse et ses variantes : papyrus de la Bibliothèque nationale (nos 183 à 194), papyrus 10371 et 10435 du British Museum, Tablette Carnarvon au Musée du Caire, Paris
  • Jong, A. de 2001: Hippopotami, [in:] Redford, D.B. (Ed.), The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt II, Cairo, 100–101
  • Jorgensen, J. 2015: Myths, Menarches and the Return of the Goddess, [in:] Nyord, R., Ryholt, K. (Eds), Lotus and Laurel: Studies on Egyptian Language and Religion in Honour of Paul John Frandsen, CNIP 39, Copenhagen, 133–164
  • Junker, H. 1911: Der Auszug der Hathor-Tefnut aus Nubien, APAW, Berlin
  • Kákosy, L. 1977: Ein literarisch-mythologisches Motiv: Osiris als Gott des Kampfes und der Rache, [in:] Assmann, J., Feucht, E., Grieshammer, R. (Eds), Fragen an die altägyptischen Literatur. Studien zum Gedenken an Eberhard Otto, Wiesbaden, 285–288
  • Kákosy, L. 1999: Egyptian Healing Statues in Three Museums in Italy (Turin, Florence, Naples), Catalogo del Museo Egizio di Torino Monumenti e Testi I, IX, Turin
  • Kaper, O. 2003: The Egyptian God Tutu. A Study of the Sphinx-god and Master of Demons with a Corpus of Monuments, OLA 119, Leuven-Paris
  • Kitchen, K. 1986: The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.), Warminster
  • Leahy, A. 1982–1983: Two Donation Stelae of Necho II, RdE 34, 77–91
  • Lefebvre, G. 1926: Herihor, vizir (statue du Caire, no 42190), ASAE XXVI, 63–68
  • Lefebvre, G. 1949: Rouges et nuances voisines, JEA 35, 72–76
  • Leitz, C. 1994: Tagewählerei. Das Buch HAt nHH pH.wy Dt und verwandte Texte 1. Textband, ÄgAbh 55, Wiesbaden
  • Lesko, L., Lesko, B. 2002: A Dictionary of Late Egyptian 1–2, Berkeley
  • Lichtheim, M. 1976: Ancient Egyptian Literature. A Book of Readings II. The New Kingdom, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London
  • Lichtheim, M. 1980: Ancient Egyptian Literature. A Book of Readings III. The Late Period, Berkeley-Los Angeles-London
  • Lucarelli, R. 2006: The Book of the Dead of Gatseshen: Ancient Egyptian Funerary Religion in the 10th Century BC, EgUit 21, Leiden
  • Manassa, C. 2007: The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period, ÄAT 72, Wiesbaden
  • Maspero, G. 1908–1914: Sarcophages des époques persane et ptolémaïque, Catalogue Général des Antiquités Égyptiennes du Musée du Caire 1, Le Caire
  • Massart, A. 1954: The Leiden Magical Papyrus, I 343 + I 345, Leiden
  • Meeks, D. 1996: Daily life of the Egyptian Gods, London
  • Montet, P. 1930–1935: Tombeaux de Siout et de Deir Rifeh (suite), Kêmi 3, 45–111
  • Morenz, S. 1973: Egyptian Religion, New York
  • Morschauser, S. 1991: Threat-Formulae in Ancient Egypt. A Study of the History, Structure and Use of Threats and Curses in Ancient Egypt, Baltimore
  • Myśliwiec, K. 2000: The Twilight of Ancient Egypt: First Millennium B.C.E., Ithaca-London
  • Newberry, P.E. 1893: Beni Hassan I, ASEg 1, London
  • Niwiński, A. 1989: Studies on the Illustrated Theban Funerary Papyri of the 11th and 10th Centuries B.C., OBO 86, Freiburg-Göttingen
  • Nordh, K. 1996: Aspects of Ancient Egyptian Curses and Blessings. Conceptual Background and Transmission, Uppsala
  • Nyord, R. 2009: Breathing Flesh: Conceptions of the Body in the Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, CNIP 37, Copenhagen
  • Otto, E. 1975: Augensagen, [in:] LÄ I, 562–567
  • Piankoff, A. 1957: Mythological Papyri, Texts, BollSer XL/3, New York
  • Pinch, G. 1994: Magic in Ancient Egypt, London
  • Pinch, G. 2004: Egyptian Mythology. A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt, Oxford
  • Quack, J.F. 1994: Die Lehren des Ani. Eine neuägyptischer Weisheitstext in seinem kulturellen Umfeld, OBO 141, Freiburg-Göttingen
  • Quack, J.F. 2011: From Ritual to Magic: Ancient Egyptian Precursors of the Charitesion and their Social Setting, [in:] Bohak, G., Harari, Y., Shaked, S. (Eds), Continuity and Innovation in the Magical Tradition, Jerusalem Studies in Religion and Culture 15, Leiden, 43–84
  • Quirke, S. 2013: Going out in Daylight: prt m hrw. The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead: Translation, Sources, Meanings, GHP Egyptology 20, London
  • Richter, B.A. 2010: On the Heels of the Wandering Goddess: The Myth and the Festival at the Temples of the Wadi el-Hallel and Dendera, [in:] Dolińska, M., Beinlich, H. (Eds), 8. Ägyptologische Tempeltagung, Königtum, Staat und Gesellschaft früher Hochkulturen 3/3, Wiesbaden, 155–186
  • Ritner, R. 1993: The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice, SAOC 54, Chicago
  • Ritner, R. 2009: The Libyan Anarchy: Inscriptions from Egypt’s Third Intermediate Period, Atlanta
  • Ryholt, K. 2012: Narrative Literature from the Tebtunis Temple Library, CNIP 35, Copenhagen
  • Sadek, A. 1987: Popular Religion in Egypt during the New Kingdom, HÄB 27, Hildesheim
  • Sander-Hansen, C. 1956: Die Texte der Metternichstele, AnAeg 7, Kopenhagen
  • Schiavo, R. 2013: Una lettera al morto per placare l’ira di una defunta: alcune osservazioni sulla coppa di Berlino 22573, EVO 36, 29–38
  • Schneider, T. 2013: Ancient Egypt Investigated: 101 Important Questions and Intriguing Answers, London-New York
  • Schneider, T. 2015: Modern Scholarship versus the Demon of Passover: An Outlook on Exodus Research and Egyptology through the Lens of Exodus 12, [in:] Levy, T.E., Schneider, T., William, H.C. (Eds), Israel’s Exodus in Transdisciplinary Perspective: Text, Archaeology, Culture, and Geoscience, Quantitative Methods in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Cham, 537–553
  • Sederholm, V.H. 2006: Papyrus British Museum 10808 and its Cultural and Religious Setting, PdÄ 24, Leiden
  • Sethe, K. 1928: Ägyptische Lesestücke zum Gebrauch im Akademischen Unterricht: Texte des Mittleren Reiches, Leipzig
  • Silverman, D.P. (Ed.) 1997: Ancient Egypt, London
  • Simpson, W.K. (Ed.) 2003: The Literature of Ancient Egypt. An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, and Poetry, New Haven-London
  • Sottas, H. 1913: La préservation de la propriété funéraire dans l’Ancienne Egypte. Avec le recueil des formules d’imprécation, BEPHE 205, Paris
  • Spiegelberg, W. 1922: Horus als Arzt, ZÄS 57, 70–71
  • Sternberg, H. 1984: Sachmet, [in:] LÄ V, 323–333
  • Störk, L. 1980: Leopard, [in:] LÄ III, 1006–1007
  • Störk, L. 1982: Pavian, [in:] LÄ IV, 915–920
  • Sweeney, D. 2002: Gender and Conversational Tactics in the Contendings of Horus and Seth, JEA 88, 141–162
  • Thijs, A. 2011: Introducing the Banishment Stele into the 20th Dynasty, ZÄS 138, 163–181
  • Troy, L. 1997: Mut Enthroned, [in:] Dijk, J. van (Ed.), Essays on Ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman te Velde, Egyptological Memoirs 1, Groningen, 301–315
  • Vandier, J. 1961: The Papyrus Jumilhac, Paris
  • Velde, H. te 1967: Seth, God of Confusion. A Study of his Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion, PdÄ 6, Leiden
  • Velde, H. te 1982: The Cat as Sacred Animal of the Goddess Mut, [in:] Voss, M.H. van, Hoens, D.J., Mussies, G., Plas, D. van der, Velde, H. te (Eds), Studies in Egyptian Religion. Dedicated to Professor Jan Zandee, Leiden, 127–137
  • Verhoeven, U. 1985: Tefnut, [in:] LÄ VI, 296–304
  • Vernus, P. 1978: Athribis : textes et documents relatifs à la géographie, aux cultes, et à l’histoire d’une ville du Delta égyptien à l’époque pharaonique, BiEtud 74, Le Caire
  • VerSteeg, R. 2002: Law in Ancient Egypt, Durham
  • Waitkus, W. 1997: Die Texte in den unteren Krypten des Hathortempels von Dendera. Ihre Aussagen zur Funktion und Bedeutung dieser Räume, MÄS 47, Mainz a/Rhein
  • Wettengel, W. 2003: Die Erzählung von den beiden Brüdern. Der Papyrus d’Orbiney und die Königsideologie der Ramessiden, OBO 195, Freiburg-Göttingen
  • Willems, H., Coppens, F., Meyer, M. de 2003: The temple of Shanhûr. Volume 1. The sanctuary, the «wabet», and the gates of the central hall and the great vestibule (1–98), OLA 124, Leuven-Paris
  • Wilson, P. 1997: A Ptolemaic Lexikon. A Lexicographical Study of the Texts in the Temple of Edfu, OLA 78, Leuven
  • Žabkar, L. 1988: Hymns to Isis in her Temple at Philae, Hanover-London
  • Zandee, J. 1947: De Hymnen aan Amon van Papyrus Leiden I 350, OMRO 28, Leiden
  • Zandee, J. 1966: An Ancient Egyptian Crossword Puzzle, MVEOL 15, Leiden
  • Zandee, J. 1977: Death as an Enemy, according to Ancient Egyptian Conceptions, New York
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.