Badania archeologiczne XVII -wiecznego wraka F53.26 z zastosowaniem fotogrametrycznej dokumentacji 3D
Archaeological research on the 17th-century F53.26 shipwreck with use of photogrammetric 3D documentation
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The shipwreck F53.26 was discovered in 2010 by employees of the Maritime Office in Gdynia. The object is located 4.5 metres deep in the Westerplatte area, 101 metres from the current coastline. It is located a short distance of 11 metres to the northwest of the F53.18 shipwreck. Preliminary research of the object was carried out by archaeologists from NMM in 2010 and 2011. During three research seasons in 2017–2019, a detailed inventory of the shipwreck was made using photogrammetric 3D documentation as part of the project ‘Wirtualny Skansen Wraków Zatoki Gdańskiej’ (‘Virtual Open-Air Museum of the Gdańsk Bay Shipwrecks’). This documentation, created during all three seasons, was finally combined into one 3D model using the GeomagicWrap program. This model shows the entire exposed structure of the wreck with processed sandstone pieces within it. As a result of the research, the bottom part of a flat-bottomed boat with a spindlelike shape, 14 metres long and 2.35 metres wide, was identified. The bottom of the wreck consists of five pine staves, 10 cm thick and 46 to 51 cm wide. The elements of the transverse stiffening are oak floors spaced every 18–20 cm, 13–19 cm wide and 9–11 cm thick. On the floors there are partially preserved internal formwork staves, 30–45 cm wide. A 32–44 cm wide and 6–7 cm thick keelson runs through the longitudinal symmetry axis of the wreck, preserved at the length of 12.5 metres, with a grooved mast socket 3 cm deep. On both sides of the bottom part of the wreck, fragments of the sides in the form of single oak staves have been preserved. On the wreckage structure and in its immediate vicinity there are at least 45 sandstone stones in the shape of low cylinders with a diameter of 40 cm to 140 cm. They constitute a cargo which can be interpreted as quernstone blanks. The regions of Germany or France were indicated as potential sources of these stones. On the wreckage seven lead ingots in the shape of oblong loaves with heart-shaped marks were discovered and lifted. The ingots have a length of 795 to 820 mm and a weight of 57.450 kg to 62.750 kg. Fourteen samples were taken from the wreck's hull for dendrochronological examination. Three samples were obtained from pine elements and eleven samples from oak elements. Absolute dates were obtained for three oak samples, and one of them contained sapwood. Based on this it was established that the tree was felled in 1632 and the ship was built shortly after that year. It was also determined that the oak wood used for the construction of the vessel comes from the region of Gdańsk Pomerania. This indicates that in the case of the shipwreck in question we deal with the remains of locally produced means of water transport. The analysis of the boat structure and nature of its cargo indicates that in the case of the F53.26 shipwreck, we are dealing with the bordyna type vessel remains. It was a flat-bottomed watercraft used for loading and unloading seagoing ships which could not be dealt with in the port of Gdańsk due to excessive draught. The tonnage (load capacity) of the vessel can be roughly estimated at about 60 – 80 lasts. Which indicates that the vessel belonged to the first class, i.e. the largest bordynas used for transhipment in the port of Gdańsk and its roadstead.
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