Peace Operations in the Activity of the Organisation of African Unity and the African Union
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The evolution of the regional system of cooperation for peace and security in Africa led to the formation of institutionalized methods and forms of cooperation within the framework of regional international organizations (Organization of African Unity, African Union) and the creation of the African Peace and Security Architecture. One of the important forms of activity within it became peacekeeping operations. Maintenance, building and peace enforcement missions have become part of the strategy to shape the international environment in which security is a prerequisite for the smooth implementation of development goals. African international forces heretofore have participated in stabilization operations in countries such as Chad, Rwanda, Burundi, the Comoros, Sudan, Somalia and the Central African Republic.
- African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA). 2010 Assessment Study, at <http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B‑6D27‑4E9C‑8CD3‑CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/RO%20African%20Peace%20and%20Security%20Architecture.pdf>.
- The AU and the Search for Peace and Reconciliation in Burundi and Comoros, Geneva 2011, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, at <http://www.hdcentre.org/uploads/tx_news/The‑AU‑and‑the‑search‑for‑Peace‑and‑Reconciliation‑in‑Burundi‑and‑Comoros‑FINAL pdf>.
- Berman E.G., Sams K.E., Peacekeeping in Africa. Capabilities and Culpabilities, Geneva 1999.
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- Biswaro J.M., The Role of Regional Integration in Conflict Prevention, Management, and Resolution in Africa. The Case of African Union, Brasília 2013, Fundação Alexandre de Gusmão, at<http://funag.gov.br/loja/download/1038‑Role_of_Regional_Integration_in_Conflict_Prevention_Management_and_Resolution_in_Africa_The.pdf>.
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- Clarke W.M., Herbst J.M. (eds.), Learning from Somalia. The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Boulder 1997.
- Coleman K.P., International Organisations and Peace Enforcement. The Politics of International Legitimacy, Cambridge 2007.
- Constitutive Act of African Union, at <http://www.au.int/en/sites/default/files/Constitutive-Act_EN.pdf>.
- Decalo S., ‘Regionalism, Political Decay, and Civil Strife in Chad’, The Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1 (1980), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022278X00009435>.
- Declaration of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government on the Establishment within the OAU of a Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution, AHG/DECL.3 (XXIX), Assembly of Heads of State and Government, Twenty‑ninth Ordinary Session, 28‑30 June, 1993, Cairo, Egypt, at <http://www.peaceau.org/uploads/ahg‑decl‑3‑xxix‑e.pdf>.
- Draman R., ‘Conflict Prevention in Africa: Establishing Conditions and Institutions Conducive to Durable Peace’ in D. Carment, A. Schnabel (eds.), Conflict Prevention: Path to Peace or Grand Illusion?, New York 2003 (Foundations of Peace).
- Hull C., Svenson E., African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Exemplifying African Union Peacekeeping Challenges, Stockholm 2008 (FOI‑R, 2596).
- Jones B.D., Peacemaking in Rwanda. The Dynamics of Failure, Boulder 2001 (Project of the International Peace Academy).
- Kodjo T., Mali Conflict of 2012‑2013. A Critical Assessment Patterns of Local, Regional and Global Conflict and Resolution Dynamics in Post‑colonial and Post‑cold war Africa, Saarbrücken 2015.
- Lizak W., Afrykańskie instytucje bezpieczeństwa [African security institutions], Warszawa 2012
- Malan M., ‘Africa: Building Institutions on the Run’ in D.C.F. Daniel, P. Taft, S. Wiharta (eds.), Peace Operations. Trends, Progress, and Prospects, Washington 2008.
- May R., Massey S., ‘The OAU Interventions in Chad: Mission Impossible or Mission Evaded?’, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 5, No. 1 (1998), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13533319808413707>.
- Mays T.M., Africa’s First Peacekeeping Operation. The OAU in Chad, 1981‑1982, Westport 2002. Protocol of Amendments to the Constitutive Act of the African Union, at <http://www.refworld.org/cgi‑bin/texis/vtx/rwmain?docid=493fe67d2&page=search>.
- Protocol Relating to the Establishment of the Peace and Security Council of the African Union, at <http://au.int/en/sites/default/files/treaties/7781‑file‑protocol_peace_and_security.pdf>.
- Rechner J.D., ‘From the OAU to the AU: A Normative Shift with Implications for Peacekeeping and Conflict Management, or Just a Name Change?’, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, Vol. 39, No. 2 (2006).
- ‘Situation Analysis: A Long Road ahead to Achieve Somalia’s Vision 2016’, Peace and Security Council Report, No. 67 (2015), at <https://www.issafrica.org/uploads/PSC_Report67.pdf>.
- ‘Situation Analysis: In Darfur, Things Have Change – But Nor for the Better’, Peace and Security Council Report, No. 73 (2015), at <https://www.issafrica.org/uploads/PSC_Report73_Eng.pdf>.
- Svenson E., The African Union’s Operations in the Comoros. MAES and Operation Democracy, Stockholm 2008 (FOI‑R, 2659).
- Taber K.P., ‘Bringing Peace to Darfur: Lessons of the Darfur Peace Agreement’, Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 31, No. 1 (2008).
- Tavares R., ‘The Participation of SADC and ECOWAS in Military Operations: The Weight of National Interests in Decision‑Making’, African Studies Review, Vol. 54, No. 2 (2011), at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/arw.2011.0037>.
- Trzciński K., ‘Geneza secesji a perspektywy reintegracji terytorialnej państwa. Przykład Komorów’ [The genesis of secession from the perspective of territorial reintegration of states. The example of the Comoros], Studia Międzynarodowe, Vol. 1, No. 1‑2 (2004).
- UN, MINUSCA. United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic, at <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/minusca/background. shtml>.
- Williams P.D., ‘Peace Operations in Africa: Lessons Learned since 2000’, Africa Security Brief, No. 25 (2013), at <http://africacenter.org/wp‑content/ uploads/2013/07/AfricaBriefFinal_25.pdf>.
- Zifcak S., ‘What Happened to the International Community? R2P and the Conflicts in South Sudan and the Central African Republic’, Melbourne Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2015). 199(1964). Resolution of 30 December 1964, source: URL <http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/ view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/199(1964)>.
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