PL EN


2015 | 11 | 2 | 40-59
Article title

Polityka i (nie)bezpieczeństwo igrzysk olimpijskich: casus Londynu 2012

Content
Title variants
EN
Politics and the London 2012 Olympics: the (in)security Games
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
PL
Artykuł analizuje konstytuowanie się bezpieczeństwa na igrzyskach olimpijskich jako kwestię centralną dla organizatorów i ruchu olimpijskiego oraz konsekwencje organizacji igrzysk dla lokalnej społeczności i narodowej polityki bezpieczeństwa. Zakłada się, że igrzyska olimpijskie, jako wydarzenie o wysokim profilu medialnym, dostarczają coraz bardziej atrakcyjnych politycznie możliwości dla wielu aktorów – szczególnie, gdy są rozgrywane w takim mieście jak Londyn. Od czasów ataków z 11 września w Nowym Jorku odnotowano gwałtowny wzrost wydatków na zabezpieczenie igrzysk olimpijskich, wydaje się, że znacząco nieproporcjonalnie do możliwego ryzyka. Koszt zabezpieczania rósł: od 108 milionów dolarów w 1996 roku (Atlanta) do blisko 2 miliardów dolarów w 2012 (Londyn). Argumentuje się, że okres od 2001 roku charakteryzuje się hiperniepewnością i kulturą intensywnej awersji do ryzyka, opartą nie na prawdopodobieństwie, ale na możliwości ataku. W konsekwencji dochodzi do znieczulania narodów organizujących igrzyska na wzrastającą sekurytyzację w ich miastach. Twierdzi się również, że wpływ na lokalną społeczność Newham w Londynie będzie znaczący nie tylko w rezultacie intensywnego poziomu kontroli, ale także z powodu przebudowy związanej z igrzyskami i użycia infrastruktury nadzoru do stworzenia zamkniętych osiedli w miejscu wioski olimpijskiej. W konkluzjach dyskutowane są długoterminowe implikacje wzrastającej sekurytyzacji igrzysk, w tym normalizacji intensywnego nadzoru, dalszego naruszania swobód obywatelskich i rosnącego napięcia między wartościami przyjętymi przez ruch olimpijski a rzeczywistą organizacją igrzysk.
EN
This article traces the emergence of security at the Olympic Games as a key concern of host governments and of the Olympic movement and analyses the implications of this heightened concern for the delivery of the Games, the local host community, and for national security policy. It is argued that the Olympic Games, as a high profile media event, provide an increasingly attractive political opportunity structure for a range of political actors—an attraction that is intensified when the Games are held in a world city such as London. Since the 9/11 attacks in New York there has been a sharp increase in security expenditure for the Olympic Games, arguably significantly out of proportion to the likely risk. The cost of security has risen from approximately $108 million in 1996 (Atlanta) to an estimated $1.99 billion in 2012 (London). It is argued that the period since 2001 has been characterized by hyper-insecurity and a culture of intense risk aversion based not on probability but on the possibility of attack. Among the consequences of this development is a desensitization of host nations to the increased securitization of their cities. It is also argued that the impact on the local UK host community of Newham will be significant not only as a result of the intense level of policing, but also owing to the redevelopment associated with the Games and the use of the surveillance infrastructure to create a virtual gated community in the post-Games athletes’ village. The article concludes by discussing some of the longer-term implications of the increased securitization of the Olympic Games, including the normalization of intense surveillance, the further encroachment on civil liberties, and the growing tension between the values espoused by the Olympic movement and the reality of a successful delivery of the Games.
Year
Volume
11
Issue
2
Pages
40-59
Physical description
Contributors
  • Loughborough University, Wielka Brytania
  • Loughborough University, Wielka Brytania
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Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-1c8e64bd-41f1-40e4-86d7-50a829d36d4a
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