Fisheries vs. Marine Conservation: Lessons Learned from the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site
Languages of publication
The most prominent issue in the field of fisheries management is the choice between the wellbeing of the fishermen and the promotion of conservation, either in an ecosystem level or as species−specific approach. However, recently, there has been a general shift towards a more holistic approach, through which both goals may be achieved, without sacrificing one in favour of the other. The ecosystem approach is supported by a large proportion of the academic community as the solution to avoid conflict between livelihoods and conservation. In the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site, the local stakeholders have managed to bridge the gaps through extensive consultation and, supported by the Japanese local and national governments and various academic institutions, have established a coordinating network of organisations, in order to build consensus among the stakeholders and adopt the ecosystem approach. As representatives from most stakeholder groups participate in the collaborating institutions, the interests of various sides, including tourism, fisheries, reforestation, agriculture, citizens, scientists and environmental groups, are voiced and supported during the decision−making process. The Shiretoko Natural Heritage Site Management Plan has made significant achievements, by adopting viable trade−offs between conservation, fisheries management and tourism, resulting in a sustainable and largely self−funded conservation scheme. The example of Shiretoko could function as a best case practice for many countries worldwide that face the same problem, especially insular ones, in order to achieve sustainable fisheries without sacrificing marine conservation.
- ERGAXIA Sociology of Labour Academic Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of the Aegean
- Fisheries Management Group, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Fisheries Research Agency, Japan
- Department of Risk Management and Environmental Sciences, School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University
- Amur−Okhotsk Consortium (2013), Proceedings of the 3rd International Meeting of Amur−Okhotsk Consortium, in: Amur−Okhotsk Consortium (ed.), Sustainable Nature Management in Coastal Areas. Hokkaido University.
- Arnason, R. (2009), "Fisheries management and operations research", European Journal of Operational Research, 193: 741−751.
- Bundy, A., Chuenpagdee, R,. Jentoft, S., et al. (2008), "If science is not the answer, what is? An alternative governance model for the world's fisheries", Frontiers in ecology and the environment, 6: 152−155.
- Cocco, E. (2013), "Theoretical implications of maritime sociology", Roczniki Socjologii Morskiej. Annuals of Marine Sociology, XX: 5−18.
- Grotius, H. (1608), The freedom of the seas, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Hardin, G. (1968), "The tragedy of the commons", Science, 162: 1243−1248.
- Jentoft, S. (2005), "Fisheries co−management as empowerment", Marine Policy, 29: 1−7.
- Makino, M. (2010), "Japanese coastal fisheries", in: Grafton R.Q., Hilborn R., Squires D., et al. (eds.), Handbook of marine fisheries conservation and management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Makino, M. (2011), Fisheries management in Japan, Dordrecht: Springer.
- Makino, M., Matsuda, H. (2005), "Co−management in Japanese coastal fisheries: institutional features and transaction costs", Marine Policy, 29: 441−450.
- Makino, M., Matsuda, H. (2011), "Ecosystem−based management in the Asia−Pacific area", in: Ommar R., Perry R.I., Cury P., et al. (eds.), Coping with global changes in social−ecological systems. London: Wiley−Blackwells.
- Makino, M., Matsuda, H., Sakurai, Y., (2009), "Expanding fisheries co−management to ecosystem−based management: A case in the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage, Japan", Marine Policy, 33: 207−214.
- Matsuda, H., Makino M., Sakurai, Y. (2009), "Development of an adaptive marine ecosystem management and co−management plan at the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site", Biological Conservation, 142: 1937−1942.
- Ministry of the Environment of Japan (2009), Management Plan for the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site.
- Murota, T. (2013), "The position of fishery commond in the multilevel fishery resource governance in Japan", in: Murota T., Takeshita K. (eds.), Local commons and democratic environmental governance. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
- Nagata, M., Miyakoshi, Y. (2013), Sustainable use and conservation of Hokkaido salmon. In: Sakurai Y, Ohshima K.I., Ohtaishi N. (eds.), Ecosystem and its conservation in the Sea of Okhotsk. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University Press.
- Ostrom, E., Gardner, R., Walker, JM. (1994), Rules, games and common−pool resources, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
- Pateman, C. (1970), Participation and democratic theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Persoon, G.A., van Est, D. M. E., Sajise, P. E. (2005), Co−management of natural resources in Asia: A comparative perspective, Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 320.
- Pomeroy, R.S., Kuperan, V. K. (2003), Experiences with fisheries co−management in Southeast Asia. In: Wilson DC, Raakjær Nilsen J and Degnbol P (eds) The co−management experience: accomplishments, challenges and prospects. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
- Sakurai, Y. (2013), "Ecosystem−based fisheries management of the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site, Hokkaido, Japan", in: Sakurai Y., Ohshima K.I., Ohtaishi N. (eds.), Ecosystem and its conservation in the Sea of Ohkhotsk. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University Press.
- Tsobanoglou, G. (2008), The rise of the social economy, Athens: Papazisi publications.
- Tsobanoglou, G. (2013), Local partnerships in Ireland: Greek and other relations of social economy, Athens: Gordios.
- Uchida, H., Makino, M. (2008), "Japanese coastal fishery co−management: An overview". in: Townsend R., Shotton R., Uchida H. (eds.), Case studies in fisheries self−governance. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No 504. Rome: FAO.
- UNEP−WCMC. (2006) Marine and coastal ecosystems and human well−being; A synthesis report based on the findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: UNEP.
- Wilkinson, R., Pickett, K. (2009), The spirit level: why equality is better for everyone, London: Penguin Group.
- Yamanaka, M., Murakami T. (2013), "Management of the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage", in: Sakurai Y., Ohshima K.I., Ohtaishi N. (eds.), Ecosystem and its conservation in the Sea of Okhotsk. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University Press.
Publication order reference