The aim of the paper is to rank sixteen Polish regions (voivodeships) according to their competitive position and show differences and regional contrasts in comparison to EU member states. The paper begins with a general overview of the concept of competitiveness. The second section examines the ways of measuring regional competitiveness. One of applied indicators is Regional Competitiveness Index (RCI) which aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each of the EU NUTS 2 regions. Next, the author looks at selected aspects of the competitiveness of Polish regions. The starting point for this analysis is a comparative assessment of the competitiveness of all regions in the EU.