Trzy drogi rozwoju medycyny
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THREE WAYS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICINE
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The article substantiates the fact that in its history, medicine has undergone three transformations: from philosophical medicine to scientiﬁc medicine, from medicine as art to medicine as science, and from medicine dealing with an individual to medicine also dealing with communities. The ﬁrst transformation consisted in the fact that during its development medicine was considered to a lesser degree in philosophical context which determined the way medicine was understood, and it became more independent as natural science and itself aﬀected philosophical understanding of man. The second transformation consisted in the fact that medicine as the art of healing changed into a natural science, and the basic place where it was practised was a clinic, i.e. a place where medicine acted as science without ceasing to be the art of healing. The third transformation consisted in the fact that medicine, initially obviously set on treating individuals, with time started to realize its social aspect. All three processes of transformations ﬁnished in the early 19th century. The article presents main theses formulated and substantiated in the book by Maria Nowacka Filozoﬁczne konteksty medycyny. Ujęcie historyczne od starożytności do końca XVIII wieku, published by the University of Bialystok in 2012.
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