The aim of this article is to compute taxonomic indicators of human capital across Polish regions (voivodships) as well as to determine their impact upon spatial distribution of basic macroeconomic categories (such as production sold per capita, gross capital assets, investment outlays per capita, wages, registered unemployment rate, number of REGON (National Business Registry Number) per 1000 inhabitants), and finally: to estimate the influence of human capital with respect to spatial distribution of taxonomic measures of economic development across the voivodships in the years 2002–2011. The article is structured as follows. In section 2 main definitions of human capital are presented along with ways of its measurement. Section 3 contains presentation of taxonomic indicators and descriptive analyses of its spatial distribution. In section 4 spatial distribution of an economic development indicator (constructed by analogy with the human capital taxonomic indicator) is discussed. Section 5 analyzes the impact of the human capital indicator upon the macroeconomic variables enumerated in the preceding paragraph. Finally section 6 concludes.