Preludium chorałowe na organy w drugiej połowie XIX wieku na przykładzie utworów Wilhelma Friedricha Markulla i Johannesa Brahmsa
Choral prelude in the second half of the 19th century in an example of two sets by Wilhelm Friedrich Markull and Johannes Brahms
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The second half of the nineteenth century was a time of great changes of organ music, par-ticularly the work associated with the development of a concert performance in a great form of fantasy, or sonatas. However, one should not forget that as well as a small form of choral prelude, composed for liturgical usage, underwent transformation and sublimation under the influence of the great symphonic orchestra of that period, as well as aesthetic changes resulting from the new organ sounds and constructions. The two sets of preludes are chosen from several underlying causes. One by Markull is a collection of little known composer, but it gives a full overview of ob-jectively different types of preludes for organ characteristically in the second half of the nineteenth century on the one hand, on the other hand, however it gives an insight into the subjective percep-tion of these forms by composer, showing his most personal style. In this collection, we also have a number of descriptions of registrations, which on one hand is closely associated with a particular instruments in the St. Mary’s church in Gdańsk and on the other hand are mostly emblematic for the style of organ music in Central Europe at that time. The set of Brahms is one of the most famous collections of choral preludes in organ literature, some of the songs have became even symbols of German organ romantic music style, though by no means their form seems to have no counterpart in the work of other composers of his time. You can treat the organ preludes of Brahms as the end of a stage of the development of this form and impetus for subsequent changes. This collection is quite hermetic, enigmatic, ”strangely intimate” buckle, which somehow in the extract, a condensed synthesis closes the great symphonic heritage of one of the most important German composers. Both collections and composers different from each other so much: Markull — the forgotten composer, but organ virtuoso of his time, Brahms – one of the renowned German composer, but the — only theoretical — organist, preludes by Markull – written for liturgical use, it can be called usable, very organ: preludes by Brahms — written primarily on their own needs, as an descrip-tion of some ideas, which sometimes makes it difficult to interpret on the organ. But there are also some elements in common: the two sets were created in the last period of activity of composers, both of them are deeply connected with the big German organ tradition, in musical terms having also sometimes surprisingly much in common, what the author wants to demonstrate in its analysis.
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