ДИВЕРГЕНТНИЙ ХІМІЧНИЙ ЕКСПЕРИМЕНТ ЯК ЧИННИК ПІЗНАВАЛЬНО-ТВОРЧОЇ ДІЯЛЬНОСТІ ШКОЛЯРІВ
Divergent chemical experiment as a factor in cognitive and creative activity of the students
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The article highlights the theoretical and methodological foundations for the use of divergent chemical experiments in secondary schools. The main aspects of the methodology of teaching chemistry divergent tasks covered their feature are summarized. The analysis of the literature on educational creativity of the students are given. Learning creativity is seen by us as a cognitive activity aimed at obtaining new results subjectivity – now knowledge for the students or something concrete (the device model, a chemical compound, a process). It is noted that the work of teaching is based on creative thinking. Insufficient emphasis is placed on the role of chemical experiments in the development of creativity of the students. Divergent chemical experiment is defined as experimental tasks which enable you to create a problematic situation, causing interest among the students to find creative ways to solve it. Divergent chemical experiment is characterized by the absence of a clear final answer, the students focus on finding more correct answers on the problem solving the task. The functions of the experiment and the principles of its organization are described. The components of divergent experiment, experimental task and thought experiment are characterized. The experimental task is a task of a practical nature, the answers to which the students are looking for in the course of the experiment. Experimental activity, methods for solving divergent problems are described. Imaginary chemical experiment is an experiment that is planned and imagined which is based on knowledge of substances and their properties. The author determines the principles of selection tasks thought experiment, the stages of solving problems, describes a technique for solving the task of divergent thought experiment. Instructional design techniques of divergent experimental tasks are proposed. Use in teaching chemistry experiment provides divergent development of creative thinking and as a means of diagnosing the students with quality educational material. The main condition for the successful solution of divergent experimental tasks by the students are the following: 1) ownership of diverse knowledge of previously learned topics; 2) possession of certain methods of creative thinking (comparison, analysis and synthesis, abstraction and generalization, analogy). For solving some problems sufficiently rapid reproduction of knowledge in a slightly altered situations and relations to others requires sophisticated thoughtful operations.
divergent chemical experiment cognitive and creativity activity of the pupils components of divergent chemical experiment experimental problems in chemistry thought experiment method for solving divergent experimental tasks techniques of design tasks divergence experiment conditions solving and estimation of divergence experiment
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