ДИФЕРЕНЦІЙОВАНИЙ ПІДХІД ДО ПЕРІОДИЗАЦІЇ СОЦІАЛЬНО-ПЕДАГОГІЧНИХ ЗАСАД РОЗВИТКУ СІЛЬСЬКОЇ ШКОЛИ УКРАЇНИ
Differentiated approach to periodization of social and educational framework for rural schools of Ukraine
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The article presents the author’s concept of differentiated approach to the study of periodization and socio-pedagogical principles of rural schools of Ukraine in the second half of the twentieth century. Rural school is seen as a socio-pedagogical phenomenon. Decisive for the development of rural schools are the demands of society to prepare pupils for life and work in different social spheres. The essence of the change objectives, content and methodological support, the school network and professional training of teachers varied in accordance with the educational paradigms. This idea is crucial to clarify the nature of external (in the Soviet era) and intra-school (in independent Ukraine) differentiation, allowing clarifying the characteristics of social and pedagogical principles for rural schools in the indicated chronological limits. In the years of the Soviet era external differentiation was based on political and economic policies towards the village and was regulated with party documents. The limits of external differentiation defined in the education acts that duplicate party instructions. The period of development of rural schools in terms of market relations in the independent Ukraine is dominant intra-school differentiation of goals, objectives, content of teaching of rural students based on personal meaning for education. Historical and pedagogical studies of definite problem based on an understanding of the priority of education paradigm that was decisive in the set of original and the upper limit of the era (Soviet schools) and schools in the independent Ukraine. Within an era we identified segments of time in historical and pedagogical development of rural school that has a beginning and completeness and is characterized by certain features of social needs on preparing young people for work and life (periods). In each period we singled out stages, characterized by chronological boundaries and essential features of the development of objectives of schooling of rural students, content, forms, methods of training and education, types of secondary schools, teacher requirements in a changing educational paradigms. Periodization of socio-pedagogical principles of rural schools performed on two groups of criteria: social and pedagogical. The concept of social criteria embedded understanding of the impact of society queries on preparing students for life and work. To this group of criteria we refer compliance of objectives and contents of secondary education with needs of socio-economic development of the society; social ideas for the development of rural schools; mechanisms of state regulation of development of rural schools; dependence types of rural schools, their structures and networks of economic, demographic, environmental factors; ties of secondary school to the cultural, social environment and economic entities in the village. To pedagogical criteria we refer: goal of education is determined by social need of preparation of youth for work; nature of the content and technological support of the educational process; network dynamics; the content and form of vocational training of the teachers; advanced teaching experience (innovative pedagogy); pedagogical theories and scientific support of rural schools in different periods.
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