PL EN


2017 | 19 | 183-207
Article title

Nieudany eksperyment. Rada Wzajemnej Pomocy Gospodarczej latach 1949-1991

Title variants
EN
A failed experiment of social integration. Council forMmutual Economic Assistance in the years of 1949-1991
Languages of publication
Abstracts
PL
Rada Wzajemnej Pomocy Gospodarczej została powołana 8 stycznia 1949 r. z woli Józefa Stalina i była ważnym elementem umacniania dominacji ZSRR w Europie Środkowowschodniej. Początkowo ugrupowanie miało przede wszystkim utrwalać i podtrzymywać radziecki model ekonomiczny w państwach zależnych, oparty na odrzuceniu praw rynkowych, centralnym planowaniu i forsownej industrializacji. Służąc ogólnie interesom Kremla, RWPG przez cały okres swojego istnienia ułatwiała mu kontrolę i wpływ na kształt oraz kierunki rozwoju gospodarek krajów „demokracji ludowej”. U podstaw tego systemu leżała ścisła współpraca polityczna, ekonomiczna i militarna poszczególnych państw socjalistycznych z moskiewskim centrum, przy równoczesnym znacznym ograniczeniu handlu z krajami kapitalistycznymi (zwłaszcza do 1956 r.). RWPG, zrzeszająca państwa z gospodarkami centralnie sterowanymi, pozbawionymi mechanizmów wolnorynkowych, a do tego bez wcześniejszych, szerszych tradycji wzajemnej współpracy nie stała się ani strefą wolnego handlu, ani unią celną, ani też wspólnym rynkiem. Nie było więc żadnych możliwości racjonalnej integracji w ramach ugrupowania, rozumianej jako podstawy do zapewnienia członkom harmonijnego i trwałego wzrostu gospodarczego. Upadek realnego socjalizmu i rozpad bloku wschodniego na przełomie lat 80. i 90. oznaczał również rychłe rozwiązanie ich podstawowych struktur, w tym RWPG, co nastąpiło ostatecznie w 1991 r.
EN
RWPG (translator’s note: the Polish abbreviation of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; the English abbreviation: COMECON) was founded on January 8th, 1949 at the will of Joseph Stalin and was an important element in strengthening domination of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Central and Eastern Europe. In the beginning, the organization was supposed first of all to solidify and support the Russian economic model in the subordinate countries that was based on rejecting market principles and on focusing on central planning and extensive industrialisation. Serving the interests of the Kremlin generally, COMECON throughout the whole period of its existence, facilitated the Kremlin’s control and influence on the shape of economic development of the countries within the so called “people’s democracy”. The core of this system was a close political, economic and military cooperation of socialist countries with the Moscow centre along with significant limitations imposed on trading with capitalist countries (especially after 1956). RWPG bringing together centrally controlled countries, lacking free market mechanisms, and furthermore with no earlier, broader traditions in mutual help, did not become either a free market zone, or a customs union, nor did it form a common market. Thus, a rational integration within the organization, viewed as the basis for ensuring for its members a harmonious and continuous economic growth, was not possible. On the contrary – RWPG strengthened all negative features developed in economic systems of socialist countries (autarchy, bureaucracy, technological delay, etc.) and maintained its dependency on the Soviet Union. The fall of real socialism and dissolution of the Eastern Block at the end of the eighties and in the beginning of the nineties last century meant an immediate dissolution of its basic structures, namely the Warsaw Pact and then the COMECON. As far as the latter is concerned, there were still ideas about transforming the organization and maintaining its existence, but, obviously, in another form. In 1990 it was intended to elaborate new By-laws of the organization and then in the beginning of the following year it was discussed to change the integration model to be based on partnership principle. At the same time Russians put forward an idea to transform RWPG into the International Organization of Mutual Assistance that would only serve as a consulting and not a decision making body and which would incorporate principles of a free market into its activities. However, the break up of RWPG was inevitable, and the process accelerated after January 1st, 1991 that marked the end of transactions in transfer rubles among the members of the group, which since then were not able to pay in dollars. In this way on June 28th, 1991, at the last session of the Council in Budapest, 9 RWPG members decided to end its activities, which was sealed by signing a special report.
Year
Volume
19
Pages
183-207
Physical description
artykul naukowy
Contributors
  • Uniwersytet Zielonogórski
References
Notes
PL
brak
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
1428-0663
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-207bc23a-6076-4ef1-a32b-37fd70cb6412
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