2013 | 61 | 5-13
Article title

Pożegnanie twórcy logicyzmu i przyjaciela polskiej archeologii znad Sekwany Jean-Claude Gardin (1925-2013)

Title variants
A farewell to the creator of logicism and a friend of Polish archaeology from the bank of the Seine
Languages of publication
Jean- Claude Gardin (1925-2013) born and died in Paris, eminent investigator of the characteristics of humanistic knowledge, original in his concepts throughout his extremely extraordinary life, devoted himself primarily to archaeology. Gardin concentrated on the understanding of the mechanisms and basis of archaeological reasoning and creation of an infrastructure allowing the intensification of the dissemination and wider reception of results of archaeological investigations. The result was the logicist programme. This was a long term research programme which begun in France in the 1970s. Within that programme archaeological theory was conceived as “informational structures” which are composed of database and the descriptions of individual steps in the discourse, in the course of which an author moves form one collection of statements (declared or resulting from the course of argumentation) to the other. As the database was understood by Gardin i.e. a collection of declarations referring to subjects or phenomena in the external world and expressed in the form of the descriptions of the material from investigations or introduced in the course of argumentation serving to justify specific conclusions. The specific ‘bridge’ was connecting, on the one hand declarative statements referring to the database and, on the other hand, conclusions and hypotheses formulated by a given author. Archaeological reasoning may be constructed and read in two alternative ways, that is empirical – inductive (in the direction from the data to the conclusions) or hypothetical – deductive (in the direction from a hypothesis to the data). The principles and operations of the logistic programme were incorporated in practice in the ARKEOTEK project. This virtual platform is, in our opinion, an interesting practical-theoretical example worthy of careful analysis. In the framework of this project, publications could be more and wider available. It has as its aim the creation of networks and enabling collaboration between researchers scattered all over the world and engaged in studies concerning the technology, production and creation of material culture. Worth emphasizing is that in the framework adopted by ARKEOTEK the ‘copying’ of a narration takes places with the full preservation of its substantive and cognitive contents while at the same time modifying its form in accordance with the principles of logicist analysis. The ARKEOTEK project is more than just a digitalization and creation of a network of texts concerning technology. The idea of this project, in the opinion of Gardin, is not merely to create the content of virtual (Internet) library of texts in electronic form, which are accessed by a search facilitates based on keywords. The publication of the results of research in electronic form was treated by Gardin (and still is thus regarded by his eminent collaborators who are still engaged in this project – among whom we should mention at least Valentine Roux and Allan Gallay) as one of the tools facilitating a research milieu scattered across the world to collaborate in cumulative work and the publishing of the results of their research by means of a worldwide information network. In the opinion of the adherents of the logicist approach, this conception allows the verification of archaeological conclusions from both the formal and empirical points of view and the creation of conditions for and operational approach to investigations into the processes of archaeological reasoning. An interesting, and from our point of view important, aspect of the activities of J.-C. Gardin was his intellectual interaction with archaeology in Poland. Meetings with Polish archaeologists were a perfect continuation of the well-founded traditions of collaborations between the Polish and French archaeological milieus and especially decades of the collaboration between the Polish Academy of Sciences and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and École Pratique en Sciences Sociales. In the development of theoretical thought in Poland, the participation of Professor Gardin in the third volume of the collaborative work “Theory and practice of archaeological research” (1998) and in the volume “Archeologia w teorii i praktyce” (Archaeology in theory and practice) (2000) were of key importance. Professor Gardin also took part in the work of the Commission of the Anthropology of Prehistory and Middle ages (including writing an article for “Archaeologia Polona” on the relationships between archaeology, history and anthropology in 2006). Gardin’s inspirational considerations on the modeling functions of logicist analysis and its importance for the transfer of knowledge in the humanities, are still the subject of continuing theoretical reflection and a point of reference for the authors of many works. The loss of Professor Gardin will be, we are sure, long felt also by the Polish archaeological milieu.
Physical description
  • instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN
  • Instytut Archeologii UMCS Lublin
  • Barford P., 2003,Cornaline de l’Inde: Des pratiques de Cambay aux techno-systčmes de l’Indus/ Carnelian in India 2000, „Archaeologia Polona”, vol. 41, 301-303.
  • Gallay A., 1986, L’Archélogie demain, Paris: Belfond.
  • Gallay A.,1995, Dans les Alpes ŕ l’aube du métal. Archéologie et Bande dessinée, Musée cantonal d’archéologie, Sion.
  • Gallay A., Roux V., 2013, Jean-Claude Gardin 1925-2013, „Bulletin de la Société Française de Préhistoire”, w druku.
  • Gardin J.-C., 1974, Les analyses de discours, Neuchâtel: Delachaux & Niestlé.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1979, Une archéologie théorique, Paris: Hachette (English version: Archaeological constructs (1980), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  • Gardin J.-C.,1981, Vers une épistémologie pratique en sciences humaines, (w:) J.-C.Gardin, M.S. Lagrange, J.M. Martin, J. Molino & J. Natali (red.), La logique du plausible, Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 3-91.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1982, Lectures plurielles et sciences singuličres de la littérature, „Diogčne”, vol. 118, 3-14.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1985, Fondements possibles de la sémiologie, „Recherches Sémiotiques/Semiotic Inquiry” (RSSI), vol. 5 (1), 1-31.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1985, Saémiologie et informatique, „Degrés”, vol. 13, 42-43.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1987, La logique naturelle, ou autre, dans les constructions de sciences humaines, „Revue européenne des sciences socials”, vol. XXV (77), 179-195.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1994, The role of ‘local knowledge in archaeological interpretation, (w:) S. J. Shennan (red.), Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, University Press, Cambridge, 110-122.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1996, Cognitive issues in archaeology, „Archaeologia Polona”, vol. 34, Special theme: The concept of archaeological cultures, B. Wyszomirska-Werbart, P. Barford (red.), 205-232.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1998, Cognitive issues and problems of publications in archaeology, (w:) S. Tabaczyński (red.), Dialogue with the data: The Archaeology of Complex Societies and its Context in the ‘90s, vol. III, Theory and Practice of Archaeological Research, 65-115.
  • Gardin J.-C.,1998a, Prospections Archéologiques en Bactriane Orientale (1974-1978). Sous la direction de Jean-Claude Gardin. Description des sites et notes de synthése, „Memoires de la Mission archéologique française en Asia Centrale”, tome IX, Paris.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2000, Surface Archaeology under Time Constraints: Theory and Practice in Central Asia, (w:) A. Buko, P. Urbańczyk (red.), Archeologia w teorii i praktyce, Warszawa, 295-307.
  • Gardin J.-C.,2000a, Approches sémiotiques du raisonnement en archéologie: une contribution au problčme du «pont», (w:) P. Perron, L. Sbroachi, P. Colilli and M. Danesi (red.), Semiotics as a Bridge between the Humanities and the Sciences, New York, Ottawa, Toronto, 27-48.
  • Gardin J.-C.,2001, Logicist modelling and the transfer of knowledge in the humanities, (w:) Z. Kobyliński (red.), Quo vadis Archaeologia? Whither European archaeology in the 21st century?, Warszawa, 22-29.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2001a, Entre modčle et récit: les flottements de la Troisičme voie, (w:) J.-Y. Grenier, C. Grignon et P.-M. Menger (red.), Le modčle et le récit, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris, 457-488.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2001b, Modčles et Récits, (w:) J.-M. Berthelot (red.), Epistémologie des sciences sociales, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, 407-454.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2001c, Logicist modelage and the transfer of knowledge in the humanities, (w:) Z. Kobyliński (red.), Quo vadis Archaeologia? Whither European Archaeology in the 21st century?, Warszawa, 22-29.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2002, Aspects of my debt to Polish scholars, „Archaeologia Polona”, vol. 34, Special theme: Polish archaeology in an international context, Z. Kobyliński (red.), 149-158.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2003, Archaeological Discourse, Conceptual Modelling and Digitalisation: an Interim Report on the Logicist programme, (w:) M. Doerr and A. Sarris (red.), Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. CAA 2002, «The Digital Heritage of Archaeology», Archive of Monuments and Publications, Hellenic Ministry of Culture, 5-11.
  • Gardin J.-C., 2006, Differing science and literature, „Archaeologia Polona”, vol. 44, Special theme: Archaeology – anthropology – history. Parallel tracks and divergences, D. Cyngot, S. Tabaczyński and A. Zalewska (red.), 135-147.How to rewrite – or directly write –An article in archaeology Following the ARCHEOTEK editorial framework. An example drawn from an article published in 1985, za:
  • Gardin J.-C., Guillaume O., Herman P.O., Hesnard A.,Lagrange M.S., Renaud M. & Zadoro-Rio E., 1987, Systčmes experts et sciences humaines: le cas de l’archéologie, Paris: Eyrolles.
  • Gardin J.-C., Roux V., 2004, The Arkeotek Project: a European network of knowledge bases in the archaeology of techniques, „Archaeologia e Calcolatori”, vol. 15, 25-40.
  • Minta Tworzowska D., 1994, Klasyfikacja w archeologii jako sposób wyrażania wyników badań, hipotez oraz teorii archeologicznych, Wydawnictwo UAM, Poznań.
  • Minta Tworzowska D., 2012, Program logicystyczny w archeologii europejskiej, (w:) S. Tabaczyński, A. Marciniak, D. Cyngot, A. Zalewska (red.), Przeszłość społeczna. Próba konceptualizacji, 72-77.
  • Roux V., 2000, Cornaline de l’Inde: Des pratiques de Cambay aux techno-systčmes de l’Indus/ Carnelian in India, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris.
  • Siebert G., 2001, Portraits et silhouettes d’Alsace, „Revue de l’ Alsace”, vol. 127.
  • Stoczkowski W., 1996, Aux origines de l’humanité, Pocket.
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