2013 | 9(16) | 59-70
Article title

The course and meaning of the Petersberg operations by the Western European Union

Title variants
Languages of publication
Peacekeeping operations are nowadays an important phenomenon in international relations and especially in conflict-ridden regions. The concept and framework of such operations has been constantly evolving in the past and one of the milestones of this evolution was the fall of the communist system and the end of the cold war. In Europe, this historic moment coincided with establishment by the Maastricht Treaty of the new organism within the process of western Europe’s integration: the European Union. Both these facts triggered a reaction of the somewhat passive and hardly visible European defence organisation of the Western European Union. Its Petersberg Declaration of 1992 redefined security and sought to change peace obligations of the member states of WEU, as they accepted a broader responsibility and a broader concept of security in the European region. This was an important first step in making defence integration a part of the mainstream integration process. On the legal basis of the Petersberg Declaration, six operations were carried out. The paper discusses them, showing striking similarities, which actually comprise a special philosophy of intervention by WEU. This philosophy reflects both strengths and weaknesses of WEU’s role in the European integration.
Physical description
  • Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa we Wrocławiu
  • Brown D., The role of regional organizations in stopping civil wars, Air Force Law Review 1997, Vol. 41.
  • Burnell P., From Evaluating Democracy Assistance to Appraising Democracy Promotion, Political Studies 2008 Vol. 56, s. 414–434, s. 417.
  • cf. Quick march! Who says?, Economist 22.3.1997, Vol. 342 Issue 8009.
  • Chayes A., Chayes A.H., Preventing Conflict in the Post-communist World: Mobilizing International and Regional Organisations, Washington 1996.
  • Corsini R., The Balkan War. What Role for Airpower?, Airpower Journal 1995, Vol. 9, Issue 4.
  • CROMAC, (dostęp: 20.8.2013 r.).
  • DeVore M. R., A convenient framework: the Western European Union in the Persian Gulf, 1987–1988 and 1990–1991, European Security 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2.
  • Dobbins J., Europe’s Role in Nation Building, Survival 2008, vol. 50 no. 3, s. 85.
  • Eekelen W., The role of the WEU in European security, Harvard International Review, 1991, Vol. 14 Issue 1.
  • Eliassen K.A., Foreign and Security Policy in the European Union, Trowbridge 1998.
  • European Union, (dostęp: 20.8.2013 r.).
  • (dostęp: 4.08.2013 r.).
  • Kay S., From Operation Alba to Allied Force: Institutional Implications of Balkan Interventions, Mediterranean Quarterly1999, Vol. 10 Issue 4, s. 84.
  • Krtalić A., Thematic Maps for Humanitarian Demining, Cartography & Geoinformation 2012, Vol. 11.
  • Osland K.M., The EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina, International Peacekeeping 2004, Vol. 11 Issue 3.
  • Rosenstiel F., Lejard-Boutsavath E., Martz J.-J., Annuaire Europeen, European Yearbook 1999.
  • Rubenstein J., Distribution and Emergency, The Journal of Political Philosophy 2007, Volume 15, Number 3.
  • Smith M.A., Afghanistan in Context: NATO Out-of-area Debates in the 1990s, UNISCI Discussion Papers 2010, Nº 22 (January / Enero).
  • Statement of the Presidency of the Permanent Council of the WEU on behalf of the High Contracting Parties to the Modified Brussels Treaty, (dostęp: 12.05.2013 r.).
  • Treaty of Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence 1948 (Brussels Treaty), (dostęp: 12.05.2013 r.).
  • Treaty of Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence 1953 (Modified Brussels Treaty), (dostęp: 12.05.2013 r.).
  • Treaty on European Union, Amsterdam version, Official Journal of the European Union, 1994/L/37/01.
  • Treaty on European Union, Lisbon version, Official Journal of the European Union 2010/C 83/01.
  • Treaty on European Union, Maastricht version, Official Journal of the European Union, 1992/C 191/01, art. J.4.
  • UN Security Concil Resolution no. 757 (1992),, (dostęp: 7.9.2013 r.).
  • Western European Union Council of Ministers Petersberg Declaration,, (dostęp: 1.08.2011 r.).
  • Western European Union, (dostęp: 20.8.2013 r.).
  • Zięba R., Instytucjonalizacja bezpieczeństwa europejskiego, Warszawa 2001, s. 221.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.