PL EN


2014 | 62 | 147-164
Article title

Rozwój technologii wytwarzania noży w średniowiecznym Wrocławiu w świetle badań metaloznawczych

Authors
Title variants
The development of technology of knifes production in medieval Wrocław based on metallographic investigations
Languages of publication
PL
Abstracts
EN
The determining the level of past technologies forces contemporary archeology to focus not only on the provenance or the function of items, but also the technology of their production and the structure of the material. The artefacts’ properties can be defined basing on data on their chemical composition and microstructure. Therefore, in the archaeological study of medieval metal objects it’s important to understand the physicochemical properties of iron and steel as well as the general blacksmithing techniques, especially in view of the widespread use of these materials. Such knowledge is useful in understanding medieval Wroclaw society in two aspects: the development of the craftsmen skills and the economic level of the inhabitants. The tools that were used for the study are the optical microscopy and the hardness tests. Both of these techniques provide a number of complementary research data to distinguish the different technologies of knives production in medieval Wrocław. The results indicated that Wroclaw craftsmen produced knives of various raw materials (iron and steel) and using different blacksmith operations (carburizing, welding and hardening). They resulted in various properties of the knives (mostly various hardness of the cutting edges). It is worth noting that both the knives with hard or soft blades were produced during whole Middle Ages. The early medieval sites (the Cathedral Island and the Benedictine monastery at Ołbin) provided both soft-edged knives with a hardness of just over 100HV, but also knives with blades of hardness of about 500HV. The same hardness values in the blade region were measured for the later chronology artefacts. The difference between early and late medieval sites corresponds with the ratio of the hard and soft knives. For early medieval site, the number of harder knives is lower, while in late Middle Ages, knives are harder and more of them have steel blades.
Year
Volume
62
Pages
147-164
Physical description
Dates
published
2014
Contributors
author
  • Instytut Archeologii, Uniwersytet Warszawski
References
  • Barrena M.I., Gomez de Salazar J.M., Soria A. 2008. Roman iron axes manufacturing technology. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266, 955-960.
  • Ehrenreich R.M., Hamilton E., Nash S.K. 2005. Far from Barbaric: Re-assessing the Sophistication of Merovingian Metalworking. JOM - The Journal of the Minerals, Metals and Materials Society 57, nr 8, 51-55.
  • Eliyahu M., Barkai O., Goren Y., Eliaz N., Kahanov Y., Ashkenazi D. 2011. The iron anchors from the Tantura F shipwreck: typological and metallurgical analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science 38, 233-245.
  • Fulford M., Sim D., Doig A., Painter J. 2005. In defense of Rome: a metallographic investigation of Roman ferrous armour from Northern Britain. Journal of Archaeological Science 32, nr 2, 241-250.
  • Hošek J. 2006 The metallography of iron objects from Semonice stronghold in the light of studied forged pieces from medieval strongholds, villages and towns. MJoM: Metalurgija – Journal of Metallurgy 12, nr 2-3, 207-220.
  • Jimenez J.M., Bravo E., Criado A.J., Arevalo R., Dietz Ch., Martinem J.A. 2004. A New method for dating ancient steel samples using Vickers microhardness. Materials Characterization 52, 145-151.
  • Kaźmierczyk J. 1970 Wrocław lewobrzeżny we wczesnym średniowieczu. Część 2. Wrocław.
  • Lv G.Ch., Wang Z. S., Wu L. M., Xu Ch. 2011 Characterization of corrosion products on archaeological iron coins. Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials 58, nr 1, 39-45.
  • Michalak A., Biborski M., Stępiński J. 2012. Przedmioty metalowe z Nowińca, stan. 2 w świetle analizy archeologicznej i metalograficznej. (W:) B. Gruszka (red.), Nowiniec, stan. 2 – wczesnośredniowieczny gród na pograniczu śląsko-łużyckim w świetle badań interdyscyplinarnych. Zielona Góra, 131-155.
  • Pense A.W. 2000 Iron through the ages. Materials Characterization 45, 353-363.
  • Piaskowski J. 1958. Metaloznawcze badania zabytków archeologicznych z Wyciąża, Igołomni, Jadownik Mokrych i Piekar. (W:) J. Pazdur (red.), Studia z dziejów górnictwa i hutnictwa, t. II. Wrocław, 67-77, 96-98.
  • Piekalski J. 1991. Wrocław średniowieczny. Studium kompleksu osadniczego na Ołbinie w VII-XIII wieku. Wrocław.
  • Rauhut L. 1957. Studia i materiały do historii starożytnego i wczesnośredniowiecznego hutnictwa żelaza w Polsce. (W:) A. Gieysztor (red.), Studia i materiały z historii kultury materialnej, t. I, J. Pazdur (red.), Studia z dziejów górnictwa i hutnictwa, t. I. Wrocław, 183-221.
  • Różański W. 1958. Badania przedmiotów metalowych pochodzących z grobów ciałopalnych. (W:) A. Gieysztor (red.), Studia i materiały z historii kultury materialnej, t. III, J. Pazdur (red.), Studia z dziejów górnictwa i hutnictwa, t. II. Wrocław, 99-114.
  • Scott D.A. 1991. Metallography and microstructure of ancient and historic metals. Santa Monica, United States.
  • Sherby O.D., Wadsworth J. 2001. Ancient blacksmith, the Iron Age, Damascous steel, and modern metallurgy. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 117, 347-353.
  • Tylecote R.F. 1981. The medieval smith and his methods. (W:) D.W. Crossley (red.), Medieval Industry. London, t. 40, 42-50.
  • Williams A.R. 1978. On the manufacture of Armor in Fifteenth-Century Italy, Illustrated by Six Helmets in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Notes in Metropolitan Museum Journal 13, 131-142.
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
0079-7138
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-239c533b-ff35-42c5-a1ad-c2e38d35f4f9
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.