СОЦІОКУЛЬТУРНІ РЕГУЛЯТИВИ ЗАСОБІВ СІМЕЙНОГО ВИХОВАННЯ ДІТЕЙ РІЗНОЇ СТАТІ: ДАНИНА ТРАДИЦІЇ ЧИ ЗАПОРУКА СПАДКОЄМНОСТІ ПОКОЛІНЬ?
Socio-cultural regulatives of the means of family upbringing of different sex children: a debt of traditions or the pledge of the successive of generations?
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The article is devoted to the analysis of some of the means that are typical to the traditional family upbringing of the children in Ukrainian peasant family of the XIXth – the beginning of the XX century. The special significance is paid to theory and methodology of gender researches, by which the means (ethnopedagogics ideals, work, folklore, children’s games and toys) of family upbringing of children of different sex were described by the author. As a unit of the analysis the author has chosen such representation of gender stereotypes in the content and organization filling of the means of family upbringing of the children in Ukrainian peasant family of the XIXth – the beginning of the XX century. It should be stressed that under the content filling the author understands a reflection in such means 1) stereotypes of masculinity-femininity; 2) stereotypes of the holding of family roles by boys and girls in accordance with their biological sex; 3) stereotypes of the labor assignment between different sex children and differences in their economic-productive activities. The author thinks that the organization filling is a conformity traditional means of family education to means of the constructing gender roles of children by their parents. Among them the author describes a manipulation as a programming and controlling behavior of children, which is considered usual for men or women; a verbal appeal (an approval of specific children behaviors by parents if it meets their sex, or critical remarks in the case of their non-compliance); a demonstration activities (an encouragement of the children to imitate adult behavior in accordance with their sex: «girls as mothers, boys as fathers»). The author comes to the conclusion that notions and differences between boys and girls had been a historical and socio-cultural construct; the process of the acquiring of the social role of children and their activities depends on their sex. According to the author the availability of sex-role standards of the family upbringing process in some way determined the hierarchical distribution of economic and social resources in a society, depending on traditionally «male» and «female». It is found out that differentiated choice of the education means by the parents and their uneven filling considering the sex of the children led to concretizing and deepening common in peasant society and Ukrainian culture in general, the perceptions of social roles, norms of behaviour and activities of individuals of different sexes on the level of boys’ and girls’ consciousness.
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