Integration Concepts of the Lands Inhabited by Albanians. The Process of Shaping of the Albanian State Borders
Selected contents from this journal
Languages of publication
The provisions of the London Conference of 1913 established a new balance of powers after the first Balkan war. It was to guarantee the respect of interests and provide the territorial integrity of the newly created national countries, however, in reality it was the reflection of the political interests of the powers. The Ottoman occupation of the Balkans led to the situationin which different ethnic communities inhabited the same territories together. The principality of Albania was established in the borders, which only partially overlapped with the area inhabited by Albanians. Beyond the borders of Albania established in 1913 there were, among others, Kosovo and northern‑western Macedonia, inhabited by Albanians at the end of the XVI century until the beginning of the XIX century as a result of the economic migrations and numerous resettlements of the people. The decisions of the London Conference on the borders of Albania were to guarantee the ethnic homogeneity of the state’s territory. On the example of the history of the Autonomous Republic of the Northern Epirus it can be argued that this assumption has not been completely satisfied. Although outside the borders of the Albanian state there were many areas where the Albanians were the majority, the borders of the principality were determined in a way which was to guarantee the territorial integrity of the newly created country. Within the borders of Albania there were various clans previously included in various Vilayets, which professed different religions. In case of other ethnic groups, the religious factor had a highly destabilising significance. It is worth mentioning that in the initial period of the existence of the country, there was no centre of the strong political leadership (Wilhelm zu Wied emigrated after several months). The factor which consolidated the population living in the newly created country was the Albanian language, different from the languages of the region and the activity of the National Revival Movement, which placed a strong emphasis of the mythologisation of the Albanian history. The listed conditionings has strong impact on the population experiencing the membership to the Albanian nation also beyond the borders established in London and Florence. The demarcation of the borders of the state not coinciding with the ethnic borders made the border area at the turn of the XX and XXI century become the area of conflict.
- Bazylow L., Historia powszechna 1789‑1918, Warszawa 1986.
- Boeckh K., Von den Balkankriegen zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Kleinstaatenpolitik und ethnische Selbstbestimmung auf dem Balkan, München 1996 (Südosteuropäische Arbeiten, 97).
- Castellan G., Histoire des Balkans (XIVe‑XXe siècle), Paris 1991.
- Czekalski T., Albania, Warszawa 2003 (Historia Państw Świata w XX Wieku).
- Czekalski T., Albania w latach 1920‑1924. Aparat państwowy i jego funkcjonowanie, Katowice 1998.
- Czekalski T., ‘Baballaret e Kombit – charakterystyka i aktywność albańskich elit politycznych w toku I wojny bałkańskiej’, Balcanica Posnaniensia. Acta et Studia, Vol. 19 (2012).
- Czekalski T., Hauziński J., Leśny J., Historia Albanii, Wrocław 2009.
- Danecki J., Podstawowe wiadomości o islamie, Vol. 1, Warszawa 1998 (Świat Orientu).
- Dankin D., ‘The Diplomacy of the Great Powers and the Balkan States, 1908‑1914’, Balkan Studies, Vol. 3 (1962).
- Davison R., Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856–1876, Princeton 1963.
- Elsie R., ‘1899. Sami Bey Frashëri: What Will Become of Albania?’, Texts and Documents of Albanian History, at
- Elsie R., Zarys historii literatury albańskiej, trans. by I. Sawicka, Vol. 1‑4, Toruń 2004.
- Frashëri K., Lidhja Shqiptare e Prizrenit, 1878‑1881, Tiranë 1979.
- Fry M.G., Goldstein E., Langhorne R. (eds.), Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy, London 2004.
- Gordon T., History of the Greek Revolution, and of the Wars and Campaigns Arising from the Struggles of the Greek Patriots in Emancipating Their Country from the Turkish Yoke, London–Edinburgh 1861.
- Heywood A., Ideologie polityczne. Wprowadzenie, trans. by M. Habura, N. Orłowska, D. Stasiak, Warszawa 2003.
- Jelavich B., History of the Balkans, Vol. 2: Twentieth Century, Cambridge 1983.
- Lewis B., Narodziny nowoczesnej Turcji, trans. by K. Dorosz, Warszawa 1972.
- Lubonja F., Albania – wolność zagrożona. Wybór publicystyki z lat 1991‑2002, trans. by D. Horodyska, Sejny 2005 (Meridian, 1733‑7372).
- Miller W., The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, 1801‑1927, New York 1966.
- Pollo S., Pulaha S. (eds.), Akte të Rilindjes Kombëtare Shqiptare 1878‑1912. Memorandume, vendime, protesta, thirrje, Tiranë 1978.
- Reychman J., Dni świetności i klęski Turcji, Warszawa 1962 (Światowid).
- Reychman J., Historia Turcji, Wrocław 1973.
- Smith A.D., The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Oxford 1986.
- Stawowy‑Kawka I., Miejsce Macedonii na Bałkanach. Historia, polityka, kultura, nauka, Kraków 2005.
- Stawowy‑Kawka I., ‘Problem albański w Republice Macedonii’, Prace Komisji Środkowoeuropejskiej PAU, Vol. 4 (1996).
- Tanty M., Konflikty bałkańskie w latach 1878-1919, Warszawa 1968 (Biblioteczka Historyczna PZWS. Wielkie Wydarzenia i Konflikty).
- Verzijl J.H.W., International Law in Historical Perspective, Vol. 3, Leyden 1970.
- Wituch T., Tureckie przemiany. Dzieje Turcji 1878‑1923, Warszawa 1980.
Publication order reference