Polsko-duński traktat koncyliacyjno-arbitrażowy z 1926 roku
Polish-Danish conciliatory and arbitration treaty from 1926
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The Polish-Danish treaty on conciliatory and arbitration conduct from 1926 constitutes an important part of the relations between Poland and the Kingdom of Denmark, which were built from scratch and were begun by the formal recognition de iure of the state of Poland by the Danish government on 30 May 1919. After the period of fight for the territorial shape of Poland and the final recognition of the eastern border by the Council of Ambassadors of western superpowers on 15 March 1923, Poland signed with Denmark the agreement concerning the military service of Polish citizens staying in Denmark (14 July 1923), and next the trade and navigation treaty (22 March 1924). The latter was a document of the highest diplomatic importance – a treaty regulating the Polish-Danish relations in the area of industry, trade, sea sailing, finance, based on the most-favoured nation clause. The 1926 conciliatory and arbitration treaty was another treaty of such high importance. It constituted a pillar of the system of relations between Poland and Denmark in the interwar period. The treaty on conciliatory and mediatory conduct was a considerable achievement of both countries in the political and diplomatic sphere. Its practical significance went beyond bilateral relations, which is emphasized in the article. The article consists of two parts. The first part shows the shaping of the Polish-Danish relations in the period before the official recognition of Poland, when the Warsaw government asked Copenhagen to protect Polish affairs in Russia and Germany, which took place at the end of 1918. It was not until territorial issues were finally settled and financial reforms were implemented by the Prime Minister Władysław Grabski that more friendly conditions to develop Polish-Danish relations occurred. The treaty with Denmark was finally concluded while the new political system in Europe, known as the Locarno system, was taking its shape, with the equal position of Germany expressed by its joining the League of Nations and granting it the permanent seat in the Council of the League of Nations. The conciliatory and arbitration Polish-Danish treaty stressed the will of both countries to develop friendly relations. Thus, diplomatic talks were to be the main means to solve possible conflicts. Should diplomatic talks be ineffective, legal norms accepted in the treaty were applied. This stage entailed the obligatory conciliatory conduct, and later involved arbitration. The article presents detailed procedures of conduct at every stage of examining a possible conflict. The process of conciliation took the following steps: diplomacy-conciliatory conduct-arbitration. The treaty was concluded for three years with the right to prolong it for subsequent three-year periods. In the name of the Danish government the treaty was signed by the Foreign Minister Carl Moltke. With the authorization of the Polish government – the extraordinary envoy and plenipotentiary Minister in Denmark Konstanty Jordan Rozwadowski and the head of the Treaty Department of the Foreign Ministry Julian Makowski put their signatures on it. After the ratification period, the treaty took effect from 4 May 1927.
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