Nauczanie konserwacji zabytków architektury i urbanistyki na Wydziale Architektury Politechniki Krakowskiej w latach 1945-1970
THE TEACHING OF CONSERVATION OF ARCHITECTURAL AND TOWN-PLANNING MONUMENTS AT THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, CRACOW WITHIN THE PERIOD 1945—1970
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The teaching of conservation of architectural and town-planning monuments at the Faculty of Architecture, Technical University, Cracow during its newest twenty-five-year history is closely linked with the history of the Technical University itself the activities of which were sta rted in conspiracy still in the course of the Wprld War II and have led to its inauguration on December 1, '1945. This effective and rapid calling into being of an a r chitectural faculty in Cracow was possible owing to the fact th a t a large group of architects being at the same time scientific workers has c.ome then to this town from ruined Warsaw and Lwow, nonetheless to the two outstanding conservators, Professor Dr. A. Szyszko-Bohusz and B. Treter, who both lived at th a t time in Cracow. Little wonder then, that already in the firs t curriculum of the Faculty the problems of conservation have found their important place. The need of their possibly broad inclusion was justified by the immense war losses suffered by the individual objects and whole ancient settings throughout Poland and the favouring spiritual climate of Cracow, a town full of fortunately surviving cultural monuments, and not at least by the fact th a t an excellent staff of professors and their assistants gave every guarantee th a t the programme set up for te a ching of conservation will be realized properly. Within the first curriculum for teaching architectural students for ’’historical” subjects up to present day immediately or indirectly involved in the teaching of conservation of architectural and town-planning monuments was devoted 18.8 per cent of a total time designed for the course of architectural studies. As soon ais in 1948 this curriculum had to be changed. It was still subjected to two other modifications, namely for the first time in 1953 and then in 1964. Each of the above modifications led to reduction of time reserved for the subjects under discussipn. So, for example, within the curriculum applied in 1945— 1949 their share in a total time amounted to 18.8 per cent, in 1948—11956 to 11.7 per cent (together for the ’’engineers’ ” and ’’masters’ ” course), while in 195®— 1964 to 10.0 per cent, and from 1964 onwards only tp 9.7 per cent. All the three modifications were adapted not only to general requirements and economic situation in this country; their occurrence r e presented a result of personal changes within the staff of professors, namely the death pf A. Szyszko- -Bohusz in 1948, of T. Tołwiński in 1951, th a t of W. Dalbor in 1954 and G. Ciołek in 11966. In 1954 was released from his duties A. M. Karczewski and in 1967 retired docent Z. Novàk. Both the alterations in curricula and those personal within the teaching staff have usually resulted in structural re-organizations of the Faculty leading to integrations or liquidation of separate chairs or divisions, or, according to actual needs the new were called into being. All the above permanently changing factors eo ipso determined the scope of knowledge about conservation which could be acquired by architectural students. To say exactly, it must be stated th a t the largest scope of knowledge concerning the protection and conservation of architectural monuments was mastered by all students of the Cracow Technical University until 195-2. Later on, in view р-f the afore- mentioned alterations in curricula this scope was considerably reduced. It was the period of 1953—1963 in which, owing to the activities developed by the late Professor G. Ciołek, it was possible to convey an abundant material regarding the conservation of gardens and the years 1963—1967 th a t with regard to natura l and artificially created green spaces. In this field great merits are to be ascribed to docent Z. Novàk. Problems pf conservation of urban complexes always aroused a lively interest among the students, however, unfortunately enough, they were presented to them :,n aspects changing at certain intervals. The curriculum recently in force at the Faculty assumes as its basis a general training with no clear preference as to specialisation whatsoever in the field pf architecture or town-planning. Thus, the p reparing of highly skilled conservators of architectural and ancient town-planning monuments was made possible within the specialised post-graduation courses.
nauczanie konserwacji zabytków konserwacja na Politechnice Krakowskiej pierwsza katedra Konserwacji Zabytków skansen archeologiczny w Opolu Bohdan Guerquin adaptacja zabytkowych ośrodków miejskich stare centrum Lednicy projekt nowego centrum Torunia projekt skansenu w Tarnawie praktyki inwentaryzacyjne
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