2014 | 14 | 3(31) | 265-282
Article title

The economic burden of air pollution impact on health of Warsaw population

Title variants
Koszt społeczny wpływu zanieczyszczenia powietrza na zdrowie mieszkańców Warszawy
Languages of publication
Aim of this study was to assess the annual social cost of air pollution impact on health of Warsaw population. The study consisted of three main parts, i.e. the determination of Warsaw citizens’ exposure to air pollution, the quantification of the health effect as a result of this exposure and the economic evaluation of the assessed health impact. Value of Statistical Life (VSL) derived from Willingness To Pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction was used to assess the costs of premature mortality, whereas the Cost of Illness (COI) Approach was applied for the estimation of the costs of excessive cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations as well as restricted activity days. Thorough search was performed to find the best assessment of VSL for the Warsaw population and finally the value of 1.9 Mio PLN was chosen. Annually, approximately 2 264 premature death cases, 351 839 restricted activity days, 684 and 1 551 excessive hospital admissions due to (respectively) respiratory and cardiovascular problems can be attributed to air pollution. The total costs of air pollution health effects in Warsaw amount to about 4,4 Bn PLN. The cost of air pollution impact on human health is significant. Therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy, with a focus on cities as a priority.
Celem pracy jest oszacowanie rocznego kosztu wpływu zanieczyszczenia powietrza na zdrowie mieszkańców Warszawy z perspektywy społecznej. Badanie składa się z trzech części: określenia ekspozycji mieszkańców Warszawy na zanieczyszczenie powietrza, kwantyfikacji wynikających z niej skutków zdrowotnych oraz oszacowania ich kosztu. Do wyznaczenia kosztu przedwczesnego zgonu wykorzystano metodę Wyceny Statystycznego Życia (ang. Value of Statistical Life, VSL) opartą na skłonności do płacenia (ang. Willingness To Pay, WTP) za obniżenie ryzyka zgonu. Do wyceny kosztu hospitalizacji z powodu chorób naczyniowo-sercowych i układu oddechowego, a także dni ograniczonej aktywności (ang. restricted activity days), zastosowano podejście Kosztu Choroby (ang. Cost of Illness Approach, COI). Na podstawie analizy wyników dotychczasowych badań przyjęto dla mieszkańców Warszawy wartość VSL na poziomie 1,9 mln PLN. Przeprowadzone obliczenia pozwoliły stwierdzić, że w ciągu roku w Warszawie zanieczyszczenie powietrza stanowi przyczynę około 2264 przedwczesnych zgonów, 351839 dni ograniczonej aktywności, a także 684 i 1551 dodatkowych hospitalizacji z powodu (odpowiednio) chorób układu oddechowego oraz chorób sercowo-naczyniowych. Całkowity koszt negatywnych skutków zanieczyszczenia powietrza w Warszawie oszacowano na około 4,4 mld PLN. Koszt ten jest wysoki, dlatego więcej uwagi powinno się poświęcić zintegrowanej polityce środowiskowej, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zdrowia mieszkańców miast.
Physical description
  • Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  • Drug Regulatory Affairs, Pharmaceutical Institute, University Bonn, Deutschland
  • Chilton, S.; Covey, J.; Jones-Lee, M.; Loomes, G.; Metcalf, H. (2004). Valuation of health benefits associated with reductions in air pollution. Final report, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), London, UK.
  • Cohen, A.J.; Anderson, H.R.; Ostro, B.; Pandey, K.D.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Künzli, N.; Gutschmidt, K.; Pope, A.; Romieu, I.; Samet, J.M.; Smith, K. (2005). The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A 68: 1301-1307.
  • Desaigues, B.; Ami, D.; Bartczak, A.; Braun-Kohlová, M.; Chilton, S.; Czajkowski, M.; Farreras ,V.; Hunt, A.; Hutchison, M.; Jeanrenaud, C.; Kaderjak, P.; Máca, V.; Markiewicz, O.; Markowska, A.; Metcalf, H.; Navrud, S.; Nielsen, J.S.; Ortiz, R.; Pellegrini, S.; Rabl, A.; Riera, R.; Scasny, M.; Stoeckel, M.E.; Szántó, R.; Urban, J. (2011). Economic valuation of air pollution mortality: A 9-country contingent valuation survey of value of a life year (VOLY). Ecological Indicators 11: 902-910.
  • Dhondt S.; Le Xuan Q.; Vu Van H.; Hens L. (2011). Environmental health impacts of mobility and transport in Hai Phong, Vietnam. Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment: research journal 25:363-376.
  • Dockery, D.W.; Pope III, C.A.; Xu, X.; Spengler, J.D.; Ware, J.H.; Fay, M.E.; Ferris Jr., B.G.; Speizer, F.E. (1993). An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine 329: 1753-1759.
  • Dziegielewska Parry, D.A.; Mendelsohn, R. (2005). Valuing air quality in Poland. Environmental & Resource Economics 30(2): 131-163.
  • European Environment Agency (2013). Air Quality in Europe – 2013 report. EEA Report, 9/2013. Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Gehring, U.; Wijga, A.H.; Brauer, M.; Fischer, P.; de Jongste, J.C.; Kerkhof, M.; Oldenwening, M.; Smit, H.A.; Brunekreef, B. (2010). Traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthma and allergies during the first 8 years of life. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 181: 596-603.
  • Giergiczny, M. (2006). Value of a Statistical Life – the Case of Poland. Paper prepared for the 3rd Annual Congress of Association of Environmental and Resource Economics AERE, Kyoto, 4-7 July.
  • HAPINZ. (2012). Updated Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand Study. Volume 1: Summary Report. Health and Air Pollution in New Zealand (HAPINZ). Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Harrison, R.M.; Jones, A.M.; Lawrence, R.G. (2004). Major component composition of PM10 and PM2.5 from roadside and urban background sites. Atmospheric Environment 38(27): 4531-4538.
  • Krupnick, A.; Ostro, B.D.; Bull K. (2004). Peer Review of the Methodology of Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Clean Air For Europe Programme. Prepared for the European Commission, DG Environment. Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Künzli, N.; Kaiser, R.; Medina, S.; Studnicka, M.; Chanel, O.; Filliger, P.; Herry, M.; Horak, F. Jr; Puybonnieux-Texier, V.; Quénel, P.; Schneider, J.; Seethaler, R.; Vergnaud, J,C.; Sommer, H. (2000). Public-health impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution: a European assessment. The Lancet 356: 795-801.
  • Künzli, N.; Kaiser, R.; Medina, S.; Studnicka, M.; Oberfeld, G.; Horak, F. (1999). Health Costs due to Road Traffic-related Air Pollution: Air Pollution Attributable Cases – Technical Report on Epidemiology. Available at Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Maibach, M.; Schreyer, C.; Sutter, D.; van Essen, H.P.; Boon, B.H.; Smokers, R.; Schroten, A.; Doll, C.; Pawlowska, B.; Bak, M. (2008). Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport sector. Produced within the study Internalisation Measures and Policies for All external Cost of Transport (IMPACT). Version 1.1. Report Delft.
  • Medina, S.; Le Terte, A.; Dusseux, E. (1997). Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine sur lar Santé (ERPURS). Analyse des liens à court terme entre pollution atmoshérique et santé: resultats 1991-95. Paris: Conseil Regional d’lle de France.
  • Mfloryan (2013). Warszawa outline map with districts. Version 4. Wikimedia Commons. Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Miller, T.R. (2000). Variations between countries in values of statistical life. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 34(2): 169-188.
  • OECD (2012). Mortality Risk Valuation in Environment, Health and Transport Policies. Available at Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Orru, H.; Maasikmets, M.; Lai, T.; Tamm, T.; Kaasik, M.; Kimmel, V.; Orru, K.; Merisalu, E.; Forsberg, B. (2011). Health impacts of particulate matter in five major Estonian towns: main sources of exposure and local differences. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 4: 247-258.
  • Ostro, B. (1990). Associations between morbidity and alternative measures of particulate matter. Risk Analysis 10: 421-27.
  • Peters, A.; Dockery, D.W.; Muller, J.E.; Mittleman, M.A. (2001). Increased Particulate Air Pollution and the Triggering of Myocardial Infarction. Circulation 103: 2810-2815.
  • Pierse, N.; Rushton, L.; Harris, R.S.; Kuehni, C.E.; Silverman, M.; Grigg, J. (2006). Locally generated particulate pollution and respiratory symptoms in young children. Thorax 61: 216-220.
  • Poloniecki, J.; Atkinson, R.; Ponce de Leon, A.; Anderson, H. (1997). Daily time series for cardiovascular hospital admissions and previous day’s air pollution in London, UK. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54, 535-40.
  • Pope III, C.A.; Dockery, D.W. (2006). Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 56(6):709-42.
  • Pope III, C.A.; Kanner, R.E. (1993). Acute effects of PM10 pollution on pulmonary function of smokers with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 147:1336-1340.
  • Pope III, C.A.; Renlund, D.G.; Kfoury, A.G.; May, H.T.; Horne, B.D. (2008). Relation of heart failure hospitalization to exposure to fine particulate air pollution. American Journal of Cardiology 102: 1230-1234.
  • Pope III, C.A.; Thun, M.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Dockery, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Speizer, F.E.; Heath Jr.; C.W. (1995). Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 151: 669-674.
  • Prescott, G.J.; Cohen, G.R.; Elton, R.A.; Fowkes, F.G.; Agium, R.M. (1998). Urban air pollution and cardiopulmonary ill health: a 14.5 year time series study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 55: 697-704.
  • Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Warsaw (2012). Annual assessment of air quality in Masovian Voivodeship. Report for the 2011. Available at: Assessed 17 November 2013.
  • Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Warsaw (2013). Monitoring System of Air Quality in Masovian Voivodeship. Monitoring sites’ description. Available at: Assessed 17 November 2013.
  • Robinson, L.A. (2008). Valuing the Health Impacts of Air Emissions. Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Rowlatt, P.; Spackman, M.; Jones, S.; Jones-Lee, M.; Loomes, GG. (1998). Valuation of Deaths from Air Pollution. Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. (1992a). Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations. American Review of Respiratory Disease 145: 600-604.
  • Schwartz, J.; Dockery, D.W. (1992b). Particulate air pollution and daily mortality in Steubenville, Ohio. American Journal of Epidemiology 135: 12-19.
  • WHO (2006). Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Global update 2005. Summary of risk assessment. World Health Organization (WHO). Geneva: WHO Press, 9-13.
  • WHO (2011). Health topics: Air pollution. Available at: Accessed 17 November 2013.
  • Wordley, J.; Walters, S.; Ayres, J. (1997). Short term variations in hospital admissions and mortality and particulate air pollution. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 54: 108-116.
  • Xie, P.; Liu, X.; Li, T.; Zhong, L.; Xiang, Y. (2011). Human Health Impact of Exposure to Airborne Particulate Matter in Pearl River Delta, China. Water Air Soil Pollut 215: 349-363.
  • Zereini, F.; Wiseman, C.L.S. (eds.) (2010). Urban Airborne Particulate Matter. Origin, Chemistry, Fate and Health Impacts. Environmental Science and Engineering XXIII, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Zmirou, D.; Schawartz, J.; Saez, M.; Zanobetti, A.; Wojtyniak, B.; Touloumi, G.; Spix, C.; Ponce de Leon, A.; Le Moullec, Y.; Bacharova, L.; Schouten, J.; Ponka, A.; Katsouyanni, K. (1998). Time-series analysis of air pollution and cause-specific mortality. Epidemiology 9: 495-503.
Document Type
Publication order reference
YADDA identifier
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.