Konserwacja i rozbiórka fortyfikacji twierdz w Grudziądzu i Chełmnie w latach 1920-1921 w świetle zbiorów Archiwum Państwowego w Toruniu
Conservation and demolition of fortress fortifications in Grudziądz and Chełmno in the years 1920-1921 in the light of the State Archive of Toruń
Die Konservation und der Abbruch der Festungen in Graudenz und Kulm in den Jahren 1920-1921 im Lichte des Bestendes des Staatsarchivs in Thorn
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For the last over twenty years, the current state of research on the history of fortified architecture has been broadened in Poland. Slowly, the development of that branch of military historiography becomes distinct and noticeable in the wide field of other historical-military studies. A few comprehensive elaborations on the history of old fortified estates already came into being, although it is still rather attempts to discuss selected issues in a monographic way that predominate. However, among plenty of discussed matters presented in those studies, the results of detailed research on the problems of historical conservation and demolition of fortress fortifications occurring in today’s Polish borders present pretty poorly. It is rather contemporary problems of fortifications towards which the researchers’ attention is turning. In this article, it is the problematic aspects connected with conservation and demolition conducted in two neighboring fortresses situated on the Vistula: Grudziądz and Chełmno in the years 1920-1921 that is outlined. The mentioned works took place during the existence of the Second Polish Republic, however the first two years after the return of those cities to the independent Polish nation are of particular dimension, also due to the Polish-Soviet war that was running at that time as well as building additional field fortifications within fortresses and strong demobilization of fortifications in 1921. For the given period, there preserved reasonably wide amount of source materials, kept in the collections of the State Archive of Toruń, on the basis of which the issue was chiefly elaborated. The essential part of the article is preceded by a short introduction of the problematic aspects concerning the takeover of fortress by the Polish Army and the outline of structures of military administration of fortresses together with indicating main kinds of fortifications existing in the beginning of the twenties of 20th century in the Grudziądz and Chełmno fortresses that enable better orientation of the Reader. In the main part of the outline, the primary organization of conservation works was firstly revealed. Then the issue of employing the unemployed to the demolition of permanent fortifications was depicted. In the following fragments the dismantle of certain elements of fortifications and repairs conducted in counterworks were showed. The issue of demolition of field fortifications built in August 1920 also constitutes an essential problem. The matters of financing of works were outlined in an interesting way, paying attention to estimated amount of sums quoted in cost estimates and actual amounts of granted loans. At the end of the article, the matters of fortification security were also briefly indicated, what in some measure was related to the issues involving conservation.
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