СУЧАСНІ НАУКОВІ ПІДХОДИ ДО ВИЗНАЧЕННЯ СУТНОСТІ КОНСТРУКТИВНИХ УМІНЬ МОЛОДШИХ ШКОЛЯРІВ
Modern scientific approaches to defining the essence of functional skills of younger learners.
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Modern approaches to define “skills” and “functional skills” of younger learners are outlined. On the basis of our research functional skills are determined as a complex integrative ability to act consciously in order to describe objects of the outer world using creative speaking, visual and object converting means in the process of primary functional technological education (functional education). In the present article the psychological and pedagogical sources are analyzed; the scientific views on the classification of functional skills of younger learners are presented. The main groups are systemized on the basis of the theoretical material of the study: functional speaking, functional art, functional engineering. These groups make up the structure of integrative functional skills, as well as constructive information ability. The results of the mentioned skills can be verbally formed abstract notions, opinions, mental conclusions, sensory images, organized composition, structure objected products with their smell, taste and tactile senses. These three processes and their results are informative counterparts. As a result, functional skills are closely related to speaking and visual ability and some kinds of practical work. It means they have a specific nature which requires special conditions for their formation. Because of this theoretical uncertainty, it’s difficult for a teacher to develop a common method to form functional skills of integral type. Every class learners create something new that is why the applied skills are not synthetically summarized in their mind. Verbal, graphical and subject-oriented actions are efficient neither in developing functional speaking and art skills nor in improving engineering skills. Another point is that the types of functional ability, like scientific speaking, artistic and engineering are not synthesized in general functional educational process. Therefore, it’s relevant to train primary school teachers to form functional skills of younger learners with regards to the present research in the future. In our further researches we will consider the problem of the importance of constructive skills formation and the necessity of professional training of future primary school teachers to the formation of these skills.
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