Technologies of research projects grant supportin the US universities
The paper reveals the problems of the Ukrainian science in the complex of military and economic conditions, as the lack of budget funds and unwillingness of private business to invest in scientific researches. It has resulted in drastic reduction of costs on the equipment and materials and cutting down of the long-term prospective researches. The necessity of studying international experience as far as diversification of university researches and elaborations funding is concerned, is emphasized. Particular attention is paid to the grant financing system of scientific projects in the USA. It is proved that science grant support, as a special financial mechanism, has obtained a widespread prevalence all over the world and to a greatest extent in the United States. The factors of grant applications successful writing are systematized. Interdependence of the gained by a scholar quantity of grants and its own reputation in the scientific community is defined. The Arrangement of the National Science Foundation (National Science Foundation – NSF) grant system is analyzed. The policy, guiding principles and working technology of the expert panel NSF, as well as customary for the United States technologies of grant support; activity and tasks of the cross-agency Grants.gov and its collaboration with other federal agencies, are summarized in the table; the working technologies of the widely known in the USA expert organization Research Associates that assists the researchers in grant management by undertaking a major part of the bureaucratic and formal procedures are highlighted. The paper reflects the activity of such intelligent web solutions as SciVal Funding, Research Professional and Reviewer finder that accomplish the search of possible funding for a number of key spheres: country, branch of knowledge, a type of funding, a type of a sponsor, deadline applications. The essential principles of the USA grant system such as exceptional transparency in grants allocation, participation of the leading scientists of the country in research funds management, focus on enterprising scientific researches (contrary to the priority programs) are determined.
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