СТАНОВЛЕННЯ Й РОЗВИТОК ФІЗИЧНОГО ВИХОВАННЯ У СФЕРІ ОСВІТИ США
The establishment and development of physical education in the field of the USA education
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The goal of the article is to determine the prerequisites, features and current trends of physical education development in the field of US education. Methods: the analysis of the scientific and methodological literature and the materials of the Internet, the historical and logical methods. Results. The prerequisites of the origin of physical education in the field of education of the United States are: the Christian ideas, the theory of progressive education, the ideas of humanistic philosophy, deterioration of health of the US population. The peculiarities of physical education development in US education are: the priority of health orientation, the biomedical direction in teachers’ training, the availability of a sports-oriented and professionally-applied direction of physical education in higher educational establishments. The development of physical education in education institutions can be divided into four periods: the first (1885–1920) is the incipience, the beginning of training of «gymnastic teachers», the inclusion as part of the curriculum in elite schools of higher learning; the second (1920–1945) is the widespread, the transition to the new philosophy of «education through the physical», the appearance of physical education in most curricula, the creation of physical education departments; the third (1945–1985) is the creation of a separate academic discipline, the growth of physical education teacher preparation programs at undergraduate and graduate levels; the fourth (1985–2015) is the rethinking, the increasing of the role of research work, the changing of the name from physical education to the names reflecting the particularity of professionally applied physical preparation. The modern trends of physical education development in US educational institutions are the reducing of the number of educational establishments with mandatory physical education, the low public funding, increasing of the role of scientific research for industry development. Analysis of native experience and experience of the specialists of physical education in colleges and universities in the USA shows that the main problem of organization of physical education is inadequate funding. This prevents the introduction of compulsory classes in physical education and encourages the implementation of extracurricular activities. Promising directions of further research are associated with the change of paradigm of physical education of students in Ukraine on the basis of studying the experience of the United States.
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