РОЛЬ І МІСЦЕ ЛАБОРАТОРНИХ ТА ПРАКТИЧНИХ РОБІТ ІЗ БІОЛОГІЇ ЯК ОДНІЄЇ З ФОРМ ОСОБИСТІСНОЇ ОРІЄНТАЦІЇ СТУДЕНТІВ
The role and place of laboratory practical work in biology as a form of personal orientation of students
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There is a need in modern school biology teachers with high professional level of practical training, able to organize the work of students in the area of wildlife, on the experimental plots systematically to conduct tours, to determine the species of plants and animals, their habitats, increasing the importance of practical training of students in pedagogical University. The updated program in biology requires not only the dissemination of theoretical knowledge but also practical skills in the work with learning material. The practical part of the course consists of biology laboratory and practical work. Under this program the maintenance of laboratory and practical works is included, which are essential for successful implementation of educational and developmental tasks, such as stimulating pupils’ cognitive activity, developing practical skills, ability to acquire knowledge independently, develop creative ability. During practical work students learn the studied material, receiving a certain amount of knowledge, learn to think independently to solve tasks, acquire skills of using the literature, handbooks, and the like. The article reveals the role and place of laboratory practical work in biology during the professional training of future teachers of biology. The characteristic of laboratory and practical works, describes methods of work during the execution of the above mentioned works. It turns out the impact of practical and laboratory works on the personal orientation of the students. It describes the advantages of the use in the process of laboratory work of the method of the educational project that enables students to master better the practical and theoretical skills that will be applied while working in the school. So, practical laboratory work is an active way of teaching biology. In the process of doing practical and laboratory works the students learn the academic material and how to use it creatively. The ability to perform practical work is a criterion for assessment of students’ knowledge. During practical work students learn to determine the species names of plants and animals, to describe and compare the fossils and fingerprints, to identify the phase of mitosis, meiosis, embryonic development, to acquire the ability to set simple biochemical research, to learn to observe, to analyze the results correctly, etc.
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