PL EN


2016 | Migration as a social process 1(4) | 31-43
Article title

Far-right populism as a response to the crisis of multicultural Europe. PEGIDA case study

Content
Title variants
Languages of publication
Abstracts
EN
The influx of refugees to EU states in recent years has contributed to the rise of xenophobic and racist sentiments. In at least several countries parties and organizations that are far-right, eurosceptic, with a negative attitude to the admission of migrants and demands for wide political changes got into public debate. This paper is a case study of German organization PEGIDA, which, as I will try to prove, is the avant-garde of new far-right movements. The features I will discuss include an extremely efficient use of social media websites to mobilize supporters and building transnational alliances with ideologically similar organizations from other European countries but not only. I will describe the history of establishing PEGIDA, profiles of its activists, relationships with other groups such as HoGeSa or the Alternative for Germany, as well as the demands they make, comparing individual topics with the situation of nationalist organizations in Poland. I will also show that the opposition to Islam, in spite of being the flagship slogan, is only an excuse for making a wide range of demands and reactivating anti-establishment resentiments, which I will discuss in detail. Finally, I will analyse the real roots of the rise of xenophobic sentiments on the continent, linking them to the economic crisis and the neo-liberal model of societies.
Keywords
EN
Year
Pages
31-43
Physical description
Dates
online
2016-08-31
Contributors
  • University of Warsaw
References
  • Adorno, T.W. & Horkheimer, M., 2010. Dialektyka oświecenia. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Krytyki Politycznej.
  • Amnesty International, 2016. Amnesty International Annual Report 2015/2016. The state of the world's human rights. London: Peter Benenson House.
  • Arzheimer, K. (2015). The AfD: Finally a Successful Right-Wing Populist Eurosceptic Party for Germany? West European Politics, 38(3), pp. 535-556.
  • Balibar, É., 1998. Racism and crisis. É. Balibar and I. Wallerstein (ed.), Race, Nation, Class. Ambiguous Identities, London / New York: Verso, pp. 217-227.
  • Balibar, É., 2007. Is there a 'Neo-racism'? In: T. Das Gupta, C.E. James, R.C.A. Maaka, G.E. Galabuzi & Chris Andersen, eds. 2007. Race and Racialization: Essential Readings. Ontario: Canadian Scholars' Press Inc. R. 10.
  • Berbuir, N., Lewandowsky, M. & Siri, J., 2015. The AfD and its Sympathisers: Finally a Right-Wing Populist Movement in Germany? German Politics, 24(2), pp. 154-178.
  • Betz, H., 1994. Radical right-wing populism in Western Europe. New York: St. Martins Press.
  • Bobako, M., 2015. Europejska nowoczesność i rasizm. Le Monde Diplomatique – Polish edition, September 2015, pp. 6-8.
  • Brack, N. & Startin, N., 2015. Introduction: Euroscepticism, from the margins to the mainstream. International Political Science Review, 36(3), pp. 239-249.
  • Buchowski, M., 2006. The Specter of Orientalism in Europe: From Exotic Other to Stigmatized Brother. Anthropological Quarterly, 79(3), pp. 463-482.
  • Burger, J, 2016. Nach den Übergriffen. Deshalb muss Kölns Polizeipräsident zurücktreten. Frankfurter Allgemeine, [online:] 8 January. http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/inland/deshalb-muss-koelns-polizei-chef-wolfgang-albers-zuruecktreten-14003852.html
  • CBOS, Communication on research No. 149/2015. Poles about refugees – online and in "real" life. [online:] http://www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2015/K_149_15.PDF
  • Charkiewicz, E., 2010. Kobiety i ubóstwo - widzialna ręka neoliberalnego państwa. Biblioteka Online Think Tanku Feministycznego 2010, pp. 9-13. [online:] http://www.ekologiasztuka.pl/pdf/f0102charkiewicz2010.pdf
  • Cowburn, A., 2016. One chart that shows the far right is getting more popular in Germany. Independent, [online:] 28 February. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/one-chart-that-shows-the-far-right-is-getting-more-popular-in-germany-a6898126.html
  • Dallinger, U., 2013. The endangered middle class? A comparative analysis of the role played by income redistribution. Journal of European Social Policy, 23(1), pp. 83-101.
  • De Genova, N., 2015. In the Land of the Setting Sun Reflections on "Islamization" and "Patriotic Europeanism". Movements: Journal für kritische Migrations und Grenzregimeforschung, 1(2). [online:] http://movements-journal.org/issues/02.kaempfe/15.de-genova--pegida-islamization-patriotic-europeanism.pdf
  • Deklaracja praska – nie poddamy Europy naszym wrogom! [online:] http://www.dzienniknarodowy.pl/659/deklaracja-praska-nie-poddamy/
  • Dolezam, M. & Helbling, M., 2010. Debating Islam in Austria, Germany and Switzerland: Ethnic Citizenship, Church–State Relations and Right-Wing Populism. West European Politics, (33)2, pp. 171-190.
  • Dostal, J.M., 2015. The Pegida Movement and German Political Culture: Is Right-Wing Populism Here to Stay? The Political Quarterly, 86(4), pp. 523-531.
  • www.facebook.com/dresden.stellt.sich.quer
  • www.facebook.com/Niepodleglosci.Marsz
  • www.facebook.com/pegidaevdresden
  • www.facebook.com/RuchNarodowy.net
  • Gdula, M., 2013. Kibole to niższa klasa średnia, a nie wykluczony, prosty lud. An interview by Michał Wybieralski. [online:] 3 September. http://www.krytykapolityczna.pl/artykuly/opinie/20130903/gdula-kibole-nizsza-klasa-srednia-nie-wykluczony-prosty-lud
  • Górniak, K., 2015. Ubóstwo – kłopotliwa tożsamość. In: K. Górniak, T. Kanasz, B. Pasamonik & J. Zalewska, ed. 2015. Socjologia czasu, kultury i ubóstwa. Księga jubileuszowa dla profesor Elżbiety Tarkowskiej. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej, pp. 323-334.
  • Huggler, J., 2014. German Eurosceptics embrace anti-Islam protests. The Telegraph, [online:] 10 December. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/11285422/German-Eurosceptics-embrace-anti-Islam-protests.html
  • Huggler, J., 2015a. Fear of Islam not a major motivation for German 'Islamisation' protesters, study finds. The Telegraph, [online:] 19 January. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/11348612/Fear-of-Islam-not-a-major-motivation-for-German-Islamisation-protesters-study-finds.html
  • Huggler, J., 2015b. Germany's 'Islamisation' marches: how the pro- and anti-Pegida rallies measured up. The Telegraph, [online:] 13 January 2015. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/germany/11342953/Germanys-Islamisation-marches-how-the-pro-and-anti-Pegida-rallies-measured-up.html
  • Human Rights Watch, 2016. Human Rights Watch Report 2016. Events of 2015, pp. 244-266. [online:] https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/world_report_download/wr2016_web.pdf
  • Huntington, S.P., 2008. Zderzenie cywilizacji. Warsaw: MUZA S.A.
  • International Labour Organization – Office Geneva, 2016. Executive summary - Trends in the world of work: What effects on inequalities and middle-income groups. [online:] http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---ilo-brussels/documents/genericdocument/wcms_455739.pdf
  • Karaian, J. 2014. By the numbers, the rise of Europe’s far-right looks like a trend, not a blip. Quartz. [online:] 28 May. http://qz.com/214283/by-the-numbers-the-rise-of-europes-far-right-looks-like-a-trend-not-a-blip/
  • Klauda, G., 2007. With Islamophobia against Homophobia? MRZine. [online:] https://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2007/klauda121107.html
  • Law, I., 2014. Mediterranean racisms. Connections and Complexities in the Racialization of the Mediterranean Region. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 15-19.
  • Lekarze Bez Granic, 2016. Special report: Obstacle Course to Europe. A policy-made humanitarian crisis at EU borders. [online:] https://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/sites/usa/files/2016_01_msf_obstacle_course_to_europe_-_final_-_low_res.pdf
  • Lucassen, G. & Lubbers, M., 2011. Who Fears What? Explaining Far-Right-Wing Preference in Europe by Distinguishing Perceived Cultural and Economic Ethnic Threats. Comparative Political Studies, 45(5), pp. 547-574.
  • Müller, J.W., 2016. Behind the New German Right. New York Daily. [online:] 14 April. http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2016/04/14/behind-new-german-right-afd/
  • Niezależna.pl, 2016. Plac Zamkowy wypełniony. “Twierdza Europy” przeciwko islamskim imigrantom, a w ramach kontrmanifestacji... garstka. Niezależna.pl, [online:] 6 February. http://niezalezna.pl/75957-plac-zamkowy-wypelniony-twierdza-europy-przeciwko-islamskim-imigrantom-w-ramach-kontrmanifesta
  • Pabst, S. 2014. United against Salafism, right-wing scene surges in Germany. Deutsche Welle, [online:] 18 October. http://www.dw.com/en/united-against-salafism-right-wing-scene-surges-in-germany/a-18005284
  • PEGIDA, 2014. POSITIONSPAPIER der PEGIDA. Online: http://ukrants.co.uk/pdf/Pegida-Position-Paper-German-and-English.pdf
  • Pietryka, M., 2014a. Nacjonalizm, czyli spokojny sen elit. Recykling Idei, [online:] http://recyklingidei.pl/pietryka-nacjonalizm-czyli-spokojny-sen-elit
  • Pietryka, M. 2014b. Renesans ruchu nacjonalistycznego w Polsce w latach 2010-2014. Analiza na przykładzie Ruchu Narodowego. A Master’s thesis at the Faculty of Applied Social Sciences of the University of Warsaw.
  • Popp, M. & Wassermann, A., 2015. Prying into Pegida: Where Did Germany’s Islamophobes Come From? Der Spiegel, [online:] 12 January. http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/origins-of-german-anti-muslim-group-pegida-a-1012522.html
  • Puschmann, C., Ausserhofer, J., Maan, N., Hametner, M., 2016. Information Laundering and Counter-Publics: The News Sources of Islamophobic Groups on Twitter. International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, the United States, April 2016.
  • Schmitt, C., 1933. Staat, Bewegung, Volk : die Dreigliederung der politischen Einheit. Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt.
  • Schwier, J., 2006. Fandom and subcultural media. In: A. Tomlinson & C. Young, eds., 2006. German Football: History, Culture, Society. London/New York: Routledge, pp. 175-176.
  • Splenger, O., 1990. Historia, kultura, polityka. Warsaw: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.
  • The Economist, 2014. German xenophobia. Peaceful, but menacing. The Economist, 20 December, p. 81.
  • The Economist, 2015b. Germany united. The trouble with Saxony. The Economist, 3 October 2015, pp. 54-56.
  • The Economist, 2015a. Gone boy on the right. The Economist, [online:] 22 January http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21640386-how-anti-foreigner-anti-establishment-group-changing-german-politics-gone-boy-right
  • TheLocal.de, 2015. 1000s mobilize against far-right in Cologne. TheLocal.de, [online:] 26 October. http://www.thelocal.de/20151026/thousands-mobilise-against-far-right-rally-in-cologne
  • Twark, J. & Hildebrandt, A., 2015. Envisioning social justice in contemporary German culture. Rochestr / New York: Camden House.
  • Wallerstein, I., 1998. In: É. Balibar and I. Wallerstein (ed.), In: Race, Nation, Class. Ambiguous Identities, London, New York: Verso, pp. 29-36.
  • Wheeler, R.C., 2008. Toward a Non-Normative Concept of Terrorism. Rutgers Journal of Comparative Literature. 9 (2008), pp. 3-20.
  • Zeit Online, 2014. Jeder Zweite sympathisiert mit Pegida. Zeit Online, [online:] 15 December. http://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2014-12/islam-pegida-fluechtlinge-deutschland-umfrage
Document Type
Publication order reference
Identifiers
ISSN
2392-3083
YADDA identifier
bwmeta1.element.desklight-2e6ab67a-ec8c-45cb-a310-11e58dcc0a1c
JavaScript is turned off in your web browser. Turn it on to take full advantage of this site, then refresh the page.