ПРОБЛЕМА ПРОФЕСІЙНОЇ ПІДГОТОВКИ В НАРОДНИХ ШКОЛАХ У КІНЦІ ХІХ – ПОЧАТКУ ХХ СТОЛІТТЯ В ПЕДАГОГІЧНИХ ПРАЦЯХ В. В. РЮМІНА
The problem of professional education in folk schools at the end of the XIX-th and the beginning of the XX-th centuries in the pedagogical works of V. V. Ryumin
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In the article the author discloses the historical aspects of professional education of the masses at the end of the XIX-th and the beginning of the XX-th centuries in the pedagogical works of V. V. Ryumin. At the end of the XIX-th and the beginning of the XX-th centuries the Russian Empire was going through plentiful growth of industry, which required a great number of qualified workers. The development of capitalist relations brought along devastation of the rural commune in the patriarchal village, unemployment of a large numbers of peasants, having no professional skills, which went to the cities in search of work. The country’s progressive public, worried about the existing situation, sought to find the way out in teaching professional occupations great numbers of illiterate and semiliterate peasants on the basis of primary schools. The solution of the problem was associated with private and social initiative in the cause of opening folk schools, where initial primary education was combined with professional training, with specific methodic councils being set up in such educational institutions to organize education process. The article highlights the fundamentals of pedagogical concepts of V. V. Ryumin with regard to professional training on the basis of folk schools: - combination of initial primary education with professional training in specific jobs, which will enable trainee to obtain employment at a plant or factory right after graduation from primary school without unnecessary apprenticeship with craftsmen; - democratic selection by trainees of such a job, which is in demand in regional labor market. V. V. Ryumin believed that through possibility to choose independently one’s job, primary school pupil could get additional motivation to master that job and achieve self-realization his life. - to inspire trainees to learn properly general subjects by exploiting their will to master their jobs. V. V. Ryumin thought that successful learning of general subjects and professional theoretical provisions in folk schools was possible due to «educational measures» of detachment from practical preparation in a selected job, which brought about positive results. - to use promising method of professional training of the girls on the basis of folk schools, whereby they obtain quality knowledge and skills, enabling them to become employed at a plant or factory. V. V. Ryumin was of the opinion that organization of needlework shops for the girls at folk schools could provide comfortable moral atmosphere within the school walls. The pedagogical concepts of V. V. Ryumin in the area of professional training are based on the humanistic principles of education.
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