Człuchów (Zamek), woj. pomorskie. Badania w roku 2011
Człuchów (the Castle), the Pomorskie Voivodeship. Excavations in 2011
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In the fourth season of archaeological excavations at the castle premise in Człuchów one trench with a surface of almost 2 ares was laid out. It was located in the south-eastern corner of buildings of the former High Castle (Fig. 1). obtained results yielded crucial data on the stages of construction, the layout and internal divisions of this part of the castle. They therefore changed the hitherto scope of knowledge, which became established in scholarship via the reconstruction of the castle by C. Steinbrecht (1920). Results of conducted archaeological research allow to say that the southern wing dominated in this part of the castle body. This wing was longer than it was previously described and it reached up to the eastern side of the circumferential masonry wall of the high Castle (fig. 1). on the other hand, cellars were in all probability single-space halls. They were connected to each other with door openings in the cellar and basement floor. The level of the basement was at the height of about 170.1 m a.s.l., which corresponds with the level of pavement in the inner ward. This is also testified to by a sewage canal, which was revealed at this height in the southern wall of the castle. The usage level of cellars in the eastern and the southern wings of the castle was at the height of 165.2 m a.s.l. Both cellars were vaulted. The southern one was vaulted with cross and rib vault (fig. 2), while the eastern one - at least with cross vault, as no traces of ribs were found among preserved remains of architecture of this part of the castle (fig. 3). Therefore, the height of the entire cellar floor is to be reconstructed as about 3.8 m. The depth of founding of pads of foundation footings of the High Castle points out that in the first stage its circumferential walls were built, and later on, the construction of foundations of internal walls was commenced. In the course of exploration of the cellars, thin utilisation layers from the period of the existence of the castle were found. Due to this, the assemblage of finds was not very numerous. The highest number of finds came from the utilisation layer of the cellars in the southern wing of the castle. This layer is dated to the end of the 14th - the 16th c. More interesting finds include fragments of openwork tiles which were ornamented with traceries, as well as some forms of massive ceramics vessels, which had a storage function. An interesting find was discovered in the northern part of the trench - a loosely deposited rectangular stone corbel of an attached shaft. The corbel was ornamented with simple step frieze and a tracery motif with a rosette (Fig. 4).
- INWENTARZ..., 2008 Inwentarz starostwa człuchowskiego z roku 1753, M. Fryda (wyd.), Człuchów - Gdańsk.
- STARSKI M., KURDWANOWSKI M.,, 2008 Badania archeologiczne zamku krzyżackiego w człuchowie w 2008 roku, „Merkuriusz Człuchowski” 2008/4 (58), 4-12.
- STARSKI M., KURDWANOWSKI M.,, 2010, badania archeologiczne zamku krzyżackiego w człuchowie w 2009 roku, „Merkuriusz Człuchowski” 2010/1-2 (62, 63), 2-7.
- STARSKI M., KURDWANOWSKI M.,, 2011, sprawozdanie z badań archeologicznych przeprowadzonych na terenie założenia zamkowego w człuchowie w 2011 roku (maszynopis w archiwum Pomorskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Gdańsku, Delegatura w Słupsku).
- STEINBRECHT C., 1920 Die ordensburgen der Hochmeisterzeit in Preussen, t. IV, Berlin.
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