Soukromé doučování a vzdělávací politiky v Evropě
Private supplementary tutoring and education policies in Europe
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he objective of this paper is to identify and classify European countries according to Bray’s typology of education policies towards private supplementary tutoring (1999, 2009) and, based on literature review, show implemented regulations and their impact. In the first part the author defines private supplementary tutoring and describes its possible implications for formal education system and its equity. In the second part Bray’s typology of education policies towards private tutoring and its chronological evolution is introduced. Policy types are demonstrated on specific examples of European countries. In the third part the author discusses the current situation in the Czech Republic. In Europe it is possible to identify not only the countries which support private tutoring (France), but also countries which regulate it in some way (Lithuania, Germany, Slovakia) or also those ignoring it (Croatia). Mentioned examples show the variability of shadow education system in various contexts and up to now reactions of educational stakeholders. Ignoring of this phenomenon in the Czech Republic contrasts with the recommendations of recognized experts. At the same time we lack relevant research findings that would support political decisions.
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